Etymology
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buckle (n.)

"spiked metal ring for holding a belt, etc.," c. 1300, bukel, from Old French bocle "boss (of a shield)," then "shield," then by further extension "buckle, metal ring," (12c., Modern French boucle), from Latin buccula "cheek strap of a helmet," in Late Latin "boss of a shield," diminutive of bucca "cheek" (see bouche).

Boucle in the middle ages had the double sense of a "shield's boss" and "a ring"; the last sense has alone survived, and it metaph. developed in the boucle de cheveux, ringlets. [Kitchin]
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buckle (v.2)

"distort, warp, bend out of shape" 1520s, bokelen "to arch the body," from French boucler "to bulge," from Old French bocler "to bulge," from bocle "boss of a shield" (see buckle (n.)). Meaning "to bend under strong pressure" is from 1590s (figurative from 1640s) . Related: Buckled; buckling.

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buckle (v.1)
"to fasten with a buckle," late 14c., bokelen, from buckle (n.). Meaning "prepare for action of any kind" (1560s) probably is a metaphor from buckling on armor before battle. Related: Buckled; buckling.
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unbuckle (v.)
late 14c., from un- (2) "reverse of" + buckle (v.1). Related: Unbuckled; unbuckling.
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turnbuckle (n.)
also turn-buckle, 1703, "catch or fastening for windows and shutters," from turn (v.) + buckle (n.). Meaning "coupling with internal screw threads for connecting metal rods" is attested from 1877.
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buckler (n.)
"small, round shield used to ward off blows," c. 1300, from Old French bocler "boss (of a shield), shield, buckler" (12c., Modern French bouclier), from Medieval Latin *buccularius (adj.) "having a boss," from Latin buccula (see buckle (n.)).
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emboss (v.)
"to ornament with raised work," late 14c., from Old French *embocer (compare embocieure "boss, stud, buckle"), from assimilated form of en- "in, into" (see en- (1)) + boce "knoblike mass" (see boss (n.2)). Related: Embossed; embossing.
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spangle (n.)
early 15c., "small piece of glittering metal," diminutive of spang "glittering ornament, spangle," probably from Middle Dutch spange "brooch, clasp," cognate with Old English spang "buckle, clasp," from Proto-Germanic *spango, from an extended form of PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin."
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fibula (n.)

1670s, "clasp, buckle, brooch," from Latin fibula "clasp, brooch; bolt, peg, pin," related to figere "to drive in, insert, fasten" (from PIE root *dheigw- "to stick, fix"). In reference to brooches, the modern English word mostly is used in archaeology. As "smaller bone in the lower leg" from 1706, from a Latin loan-translation of Greek perone "small bone in the lower leg," originally "clasp, brooch; anything pointed for piercing or pinning;" the bone was so called because it resembles a clasp such as that found in a modern safety pin. Related: Fibular.

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infibulate (v.)

"to clasp, confine with a buckle, ring, clasp, or the like," especially of the sexual organs, to prevent copulation, 1620s, from Latin infibulatus, past participle of infibulare "to close with a clasp," from in- "on" (from PIE root *en "in") + fibula "a clasp, pin" (from PIE root *dheigw- "to stick, fix"). Related: Infibulated.

This operation was very generally practised in antiquity upon both young men and young women, but in later times chiefly upon the latter; and it is said to be still in use in some parts of the East. [Century Dictionary, 1902]
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