Etymology
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breadth (n.)
"distance between the sides," late 14c., alteration of brede "breadth," from Old English brædu "breadth, width, extent," from bræd; probably by analogy of long/length.
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width (n.)
1620s, formed from wide on model of breadth, and replacing wideness (Old English widnes). Johnson (1755) calls it "a low word." Related: Widthwise.
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hairbreadth (n.)

also hairsbreadth, hairs-breadth, hair's breadth, from late 15c. as a measure of minute exactness. It is said to once have been a formal unit of measure equal to one-forty-eighth of an inch. From hair + breadth.

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narrowly (adv.)

Old English nearolice "with little breadth or extent, closely; strictly; carefully;" see narrow (adj.) + -ly (2). Meaning "only by a little, by a small distance" is attested from 1550s.

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broad-minded (adj.)
1590s; see broad (adj.) + -minded. This abstract mental sense of broad existed in Old English; for example in bradnes "breadth," also "liberality."
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latitude (n.)
Origin and meaning of latitude

late 14c., "breadth," from Old French latitude (13c.) and directly from Latin latitudo "breadth, width, extent, size," from lātus (adj.) "wide, broad, extensive" Old Latin stlatus, from PIE *stleto-, suffixed form of root *stele- "to spread, to extend" (source also of Old Church Slavonic steljo "to spread out," Armenian lain "broad").

Geographical and astronomical senses also are from late 14c., literally "breadth" of a map of the known world. Figurative sense of "allowable degree of variation, extent of deviation from a standard" is early 15c. Related: Latitudinal "pertaining to geographic latitude" (1777); latitudinous "having broadness of interpretation" (1829, American English).

The ancients supposed the torrid and the frigid zones to be uninhabitable and even impenetrable by man, but while the earth, as known to them, was bounded westwardly by the Atlantic Ocean, it extended indefinitely towards the east. The dimensions of the habitable world then (and ancient geography embraced only the home of man ....,) were much greater, measured from west to east, than from south to north. Accordingly, early geographers called the greater dimension, or the east and west line, the length, longitudo, of the earth, the shorter dimension, or the north and south line, they denominated its breadth, latitudo. These Latin terms are retained in the modern geography of most European nations, but with a modified meaning. [George P. Marsh, "Lectures on the English Language," 1882]
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capacity (n.)

early 15c., "ability to contain; size, extent;" also "ability" in a legal, moral, or intellectual sense, from Old French capacité "ability to hold" (15c.), from Latin capacitatem (nominative capacitas) "breadth, capacity, capability of holding much," noun of state from capax (genitive capacis) "able to hold much," from capere "to take" (from PIE root *kap- "to grasp").

Sense of "power to store electricity" is from 1777; industrial sense of "ability to produce" is from 1931. Meaning "power of containing a certain quantity" is from 1885, hence "largest audience a place can hold" (1908).

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dactyl (n.)

metrical foot, late 14c., from Latin dactylus, from Greek daktylos, a unit of measure (a finger-breadth), also "a fruit of the date tree, a date," literally "finger" (also "toe"), a word of unknown origin. The metrical use (a long syllable followed by two short ones) is by analogy with the three joints of a finger. In English versification it refers to an accented syllable followed by two unaccented. The "date" sense also sometimes was used in early Modern English.

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duodenum (n.)

"first portion of the small intestine," late 14c., also duodene, from Medieval Latin duodenum digitorium "space of twelve digits," from Latin duodeni "twelve each" (from duodecim "twelve;" see dozen). Coined by Gerard of Cremona (d. 1187) in "Canon Avicennae," a loan-translation of Greek dodekadaktylon, literally "twelve fingers long." The intestine part was so called by Greek physician Herophilus (c. 353-280 B.C.E.) for its length, which is about equal to the breadth of twelve fingers. The classical plural is duodena.

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broad (n.)

c. 1300, "breadth" (obsolete), from broad (adj.). Sense of "shallow, reedy lake formed by the expansion of a river over a flat surface" is a Norfolk dialect word from 1650s. Meaning "the broad part" of anything is by 1741.

Slang sense of "woman" is by 1911, perhaps suggestive of broad hips, but it also might trace to American English abroadwife, word for a woman (often a slave) away from her husband. Earliest use of the slang word suggests immorality or coarse, low-class women. Because of this negative association, and the rise of women's athletics, the track and field broad jump (1863) was changed to the long jump c. 1967.

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