Etymology
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body (n.)

Old English bodig "trunk of a man or beast, physical structure of a human or animal; material frame, material existence of a human; main or principal part of anything," related to Old High German botah, but otherwise of unknown origin. Not elsewhere in Germanic, and the word has died out in German (replaced by Leib, originally "life," and Körper, from Latin), "but in English body remains as a great and important word" [OED].

Extension to "a person, a human being" is from c. 1300. Meaning "main part" of anything was in late Old English, hence its use in reference to vehicles (1520s). From 1580s as "part of the dress which covers the body." From 1590s as "main part of a group, any number of individuals spoken of collectively." From 1660s as "main portion of a document." Contrasted with soul at least since mid-13c. Meaning "corpse" ("dead body") is from c. 1200. Transferred to matter generally in Middle English (as in heavenly body, late 14c.).

Body politic "the nation, the state, whole body of people living under an organized government" first recorded late 15c., with French word order. Body image was coined 1934. Body count "number of enemy killed in battle or otherwise" is from 1968, from the Vietnam War. Body language is attested from 1967, perhaps from French langage corporel (1966). Body-snatcher "one who secretly disinters the bodies of the recently dead for dissection" is from 1834. Phrase over my dead body attested by 1833.

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body-bag (n.)
originally a kind of sleeping bag, 1885, from body (n.) + bag (n.). As a plastic bag to transport a dead body, by 1967.
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body-builder (n.)

by 1916 as "one devoted to cultivating fitness and strength," from body (n.) + builder. Used earlier in reference to healthful nutriments and coach-body makers. Related: Body-building (by 1892, perhaps 1881, in the "training for physical strength and fitness" sense, said to have been coined by R. J. Roberts, superintendent of the Boston Y.M.C.A. gymnasium).

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bod (n.)
1788, "a person," short for body. Meaning "physical body" is recorded from 1933.
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able-bodied (adj.)
"healthy and sufficiently strong," 1620s; see able + body.
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homebody (n.)
"one who prefers to stay at home," 1821, from home (n.) + body.
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bodyguard (n.)
also body-guard, 1735, "retinue, escort charged with the protection of one person," collective singular, from body + guard (n.). Attested 1861 as "a soldier of the bodyguard."
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bodiless (adj.)
late 14c., "not consisting of material substance, incorporeal," from body (n.) + -less.
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busybody (n.)
"meddlesome person," 1520s, from busy (adj.) in the otherwise-obsolete sense "prying, meddlesome" + body "person."
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bodily (adj.)
c. 1300, "pertaining to the body;" also opposed to "spiritual;" from body + -ly (1). As an adverb (with -ly (2)) from late 14c.
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