Etymology
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beyond (prep., adv.)
Old English begeondan "on the other side of, from the farther side," from be- "by," here probably indicating position, + geond "yonder" (prep.); see yond. A compound not found elsewhere in Germanic. From late 14c. as "further on than," 1530s as "out of reach of." To be beyond (someone) "to pass (someone's) comprehension" is by 1812.
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ultrasonic (adj.)
"having frequency beyond the audible range," 1923, from ultra- "beyond" + sonic. For sense, see supersonic.
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ultra vires 
Latin, literally "beyond powers," from ultra "beyond" (see ultra-) + vires "strength, force, vigor, power," plural of vis (see vim). Usually "beyond the legal or constitutional power of a court, etc."
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transcend (v.)
mid-14c., "escape inclusion in; lie beyond the scope of," from Old French transcendre "transcend, surpass," and directly from Latin transcendere "climb over or beyond, surmount, overstep," from trans "across, beyond" (see trans-) + scandere "to climb" (see scan (v.)). Meanings "be surpassing, outdo, excel; surmount, move beyond" are from early 15c. Related: Transcended; transcending.
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outre (adj.)

"exaggerated, extravagant, eccentric, passing the bounds of what is usual or proper," 1722, from French outré "exaggerated, excessive, extreme," past participle of outrer "to carry to excess, overdo, overstrain, exaggerate," from outre "beyond," from Latin ultra "beyond" (from suffixed form of PIE root *al- "beyond").

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excess (n.)

"a going beyond ordinary, necessary, or proper limits; superfluity; undue indulgence of appetite, want of restraint in gratifying the desires; the amount by which one number or quantity exceeds another," late 14c., from Old French exces (14c.) "excess, extravagance, outrage," from Latin excessus "departure, a going beyond the bounds of reason or beyond the subject," from stem of excedere "to depart, go beyond," from ex "out" (see ex-) + cedere "to go, yield" (from PIE root *ked- "to go, yield"). As an adjective, "beyond what is necessary, proper, or right," from late 15c.

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preterhuman (adj.)

"more than human, beyond what is human," 1803, from preter- "beyond" + human (adj.). Used to avoid the specific connotations of superhuman.

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preternuptial (adj.)

"beyond what is permitted by the marriage tie or vow," hence, euphemistically, "adulterous," 1833 (Carlyle), from preter- "beyond" + nuptial.

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Transylvania 
literally "beyond the forest," from Medieval Latin, from trans "beyond" (see trans-) + sylva (see sylvan). So called in reference to the wooded mountains that surround it.
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surpass (v.)

1550s, from French surpasser "go beyond, exceed, excel" (16c.), from sur- "beyond" (see sur- (1)) + passer "to go by" (see pass (v.)). Related: Surpassed; surpassing.

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