Etymology
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besides (prep.)
attested from c. 1200, common after c. 1400, from beside (q.v.) + adverbial genitive -s. Once sharing all the senses of beside, now properly limited to the adverbial sense "in addition to, otherwise."
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paraphernalia (n.)

1650s, in law, "a woman's property besides her dowry," from Medieval Latin paraphernalia (short for paraphernalia bona "paraphernal goods"), neuter plural of paraphernalis (adj.), from Late Latin parapherna, in Roman law "a woman's property besides her dowry," from Greek parapherna, neuter plural, from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + pherne "dowry," which is related to pherein "to carry," from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry." Meaning "equipment, apparatus" is attested by 1736, from the notion of "odds and ends."

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praeter- 

from Latin adverb and preposition praeter "beyond, past, besides, except" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward," hence "in front of, before"). See preter-, which now is the usual form of it in English; also see æ (1).

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Na-Dene 

in reference to a group of related North American native languages, 1915, coined by U.S. anthropologist and linguist Edward Sapir from *-ne, a stem in the languages for "person, people," and Athabaskan Dene "person, people." "The compound term Na-dene thus designates by means of native stems the speakers of the three languages concerned, besides continuing the use of the old term Dene for the Athabaskan branch of the stock" [Sapir]. 

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mockingbird (n.)

also mocking-bird, passerine bird of the southerly parts of the U.S., noted for the song of the males and its skill in imitation, 1670s (mock-bird is from 1640s), from present-participle adjective of mock (v.) + bird (n.1).

[I]t is the most famous songster of America, and is much prized as a cage-bird. Its proper song is of remarkable compass and variety, and besides this the bird has a wonderful range, being able to imitate almost any voice or even mere noises. [Century Dictionary]
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governmentalism (n.)

"disposition to enlarge the power and scope of the government," 1841, from governmental + -ism; originally in reference to France and perhaps from French.

Besides this, it is a well known fact, one made sufficiently clear by the history of the United States, that the less governmentalism there is in a country, the better it is for the citizens as to their material interests. A very complicated governmental apparatus, when, especially, it is useless, is and can be only hurtful to the interests of the mass of the people. [Amedee H. Simonin, "Resumption of Specie Payments," 1868]

Related: Governmentalist.

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super- 
word-forming element meaning "above, over, beyond," from Latin super (adverb and preposition) "above, over, on the top (of), beyond, besides, in addition to," from *(s)uper-, variant form of PIE root *uper "over." In English words from Old French, it appears as sur-. The primary sense seems to have shifted over time from usually meaning "beyond" to usually meaning "very much," which can be contradictory. E.g. supersexual, which is attested from 1895 as "transcending sexuality," from 1968 as "very sexual."
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Arian (adj.)

late 14c., Arrian, "adhering to the doctrines of Arius," from Late Latin Arianus, "pertaining to the doctrines of Arius," priest in Alexandria early 4c., who posed the question of Christ's nature in terms which appeared to debase the Savior's relation to God (denial of consubstantiation). Besides taking an abstract view of Christ's nature, he reaffirmed man's capacity for perfection. The doctrines were condemned at Nice, 325, but the dissension was widespread and split the Church for about a century during the crucial time of barbarian conversions. The name is Greek, literally "warlike, of Ares."

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draught (n.)

c. 1200, "act of pulling or drawing; quantity of liquid that one drinks at a time," from Old English *dreaht, *dræht, related to dragan "to draw, drag" (see drag (v.)). The oldest recorded sense besides that of "pulling" is of "drinking" (perhaps "so much as is drawn down the throat at once"); compare drag (n.) in reference to an inhaling on a cigarette. It is attested from c. 1300 as "that which is drawn or written." In British English, it retains the functions that did not branch off with draft (q.v.).

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bitchy (adj.)

1925, U.S. slang, "sexually provocative;" later (1930s) "spiteful, catty, bad-tempered" (usually of females); from bitch + -y (2). Earlier in reference to male dogs thought to look less rough or coarse than usual.

Mr. Ramsay says we would now call the old dogs "bitchy" in face. That is because the Englishmen have gone in for the wrong sort of forefaces in their dogs, beginning with the days when Meersbrook Bristles and his type swept the judges off their feet and whiskers and an exaggerated face were called for in other varieties of terriers besides the wire haired fox. [James Watson, "The Dog Book," New York, 1906]

Related: Bitchily; bitchiness.

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