Etymology
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benzene (n.)
clear, colorless liquid used as a solvent, 1835, benzine, altered from German Benzin, coined in 1833 by German chemist Eilhardt Mitscherlich (1794-1863) from Benz(oesäure) "benzoic acid" + -in, indicating "derived from" (see -ine (2)). Mitscherlich obtained it from a distillation of benzoic acid, obtained from benzoin. The form benzene (with hydrocarbon suffix -ene) was proposed in 1835 and began to be used from 1838 in English, but in mid-19c. it also commonly was called benzol with ending from alcohol.
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benzo- 
word-forming element in chemistry, from benzene.
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benzaldehyde (n.)
1866, from German benzaldehyd; see benzene + aldehyde.
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benzine (n.)
original name of benzene (q.v.). By 1864 as the name of a different substance, a colorless liquid obtained from the distillation of petroleum.
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Benzedrine (n.)
trade name of a type of amphetamine, 1933, registered as a proprietary name 1935 by Smith, Kline & French Laboratories, from benzoic (see benzene) + chemical suffix -edrine from ephedrine, etc. It is a carbonate of benzyl-methyl-carbinamine. Slang shortening benny first attested 1955.
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pheno- 

before vowels phen-, word-forming element in science meaning "pertaining to or derived from benzene;" see -phene.

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-phene 

as an element in names of chemicals derived from benzene, from French phène, proposed 1836 by French scientist Auguste Laurent as an alternative name for "benzene" because it had been found in coal tar, a byproduct of the manufacture of "illuminating gas," from Greek phainein "bring to light, cause to appear, show" (from PIE root *bha- (1) "to shine").

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phenol (n.)

"carbolic acid, hydroxyl derivative of benzene," 1844, from pheno- + -ol. Discovered in coal tar in 1834; used as an antiseptic from 1867. Related: Phenolic.

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benzodiazepine (n.)
1934, from benzo-, word-forming element used in chemistry to indicate presence of a benzene ring fused with another ring, + di + azo- + epine, a suffix denoting a seven-membered ring, from Greek hepta (see seven).
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naphthalene (n.)

a benzene hydrocarbon obtained originally from distillation of coal tar, 1821, named by English chemist John Kidd, who first isolated and studied it, from naphtha + chemical suffix -ine (2) + -l- for the sake of euphony.

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