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beneath (adv., prep.)
Old English beneoðan "under, below, in a lower place, further down than," in late Old English "lower in rank, degree, excellence, etc.," from be- "by" + neoðan "below, down, from below," from Proto-Germanic *niþar "lower, farther down, down" (see nether). Meaning "unworthy of" is attested from 1849 (purists prefer below in this sense). "The be- gave or emphasized the notion of 'where,' excluding that of 'whence' pertaining to the simple niðan" [OED].
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neath (adv.)

also 'neath, 1787, poetic shortening of beneath (q.v.).

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underneath (adv.)
Old English underneoðan, from under + neoðan "below" (see beneath).
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below (adv.)
"in a lower position," early 14c., biloogh, from be- "by, about" + logh, lou, lowe "low" (see low (adj.)). Apparently a variant of earlier a-lowe (influenced by other adverbs in be-; see before), the parallel form to an-high (now on high).

Beneath was the usual word; below was very rare in Middle English and gained currency only in 16c. It is frequent in Shakespeare. As a preposition from 1570s. In nautical use, "off-duty," in contradistinction to "on deck." Meaning "inferior in rank or dignity" is from c. 1600. According to Fowler, below is the opposite of above and concerns difference of level and suggests comparison of independent things. Under is the opposite of over and is concerned with superposition and subjection and suggests some interrelation.
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infra dig. 
"beneath one's dignity, unbecoming to one's position in society," 1824, colloquial abbreviation of Latin infra dignitatem "beneath the dignity of." See infra- + dignity.
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hypo- 
word-forming element meaning "under, beneath; less, less than" (in chemistry, indicating a lesser oxidation), from Greek hypo (prep. and adverb) "under, beneath; up from under; toward and under (i.e. into)," from PIE root *upo "under."
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netherworld (n.)
also nether-world, 1630s, "place beneath the earth," from nether + world.
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tush (n.)
"backside, buttocks," 1962, an abbreviation of tochus (1914), from Yiddish tokhes, from Hebrew tahat "beneath."
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undercurrent (n.)
1660s, "stream of water or air flowing beneath the surface or beneath another current," a hybrid formed from under + current (n.). The figurative sense of "suppressed or underlying character" is attested from 1817.
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hypocoristic (adj.)

"forming a diminutive of endearment," 1650s, hypocoristick, from Greek hypo- "under, beneath, less than." Related: Hypocoristical (c. 1600).

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