1530s, "action of battering," in law, "the unlawful beating of another," from French batterie, from Old French baterie "beating, thrashing, assault" (12c.), from batre "to beat," from Latin battuere (see batter (v.)).
Meaning shifted in French from "bombardment" ("heavy blows" upon city walls or fortresses) to "unit of artillery" (a sense recorded in English from 1550s). Extension to "electrical cell" (1748, first used by Ben Franklin) is perhaps from the artillery sense via notion of "discharges" of electricity. In Middle English, bateri meant only "forged metal ware." In obsolete baseball jargon battery was the word for "pitcher and catcher" considered as a unit (1867, originally only the pitcher).
1839, "apparatus for reversing the currents from a battery without rearranging the conductors," agent noun from Latin commutare (see commute (v.)). From 1880 as "contrivance for varying the strength of an electric current."
initialism (acronym) from shit out of luck (though sometimes euphemised), 1917, World War I military slang. "Applicable to everything from death to being late for mess" [Russell Lord, "Captain Boyd's Battery, A.E.F.," c. 1920]
late 15c., "one who loads," agent noun from charge (v.). Meaning "war-horse, horse ridden in charging" is from 1762. Meaning "appliance for charging" in any sense is from 1711, originally in reference to firearms; from 1901 as "device to give charge to an electric battery."
also diehard, 1844, in reference to the 57th Regiment of Foot in the British Army, from the verbal phrase die hard "suffer, struggle, or resist in dying," 1784; see die (v.) + hard (adv.). As an adjective, attested from 1871. The brand of automobile battery, spelled DieHard, was introduced by Sears in 1967.
"a putting or fixing in place; a place or site," 1742, formerly also implacement; from French emplacement "place, situation," from verb emplacer, from assimilated form of en- "in" (see en- (1)) + placer "to place" from place "place, spot" (see place (n.)). Military sense of "the space within a fortification allotted for the position and service of a gun or battery" is attested from 1811.
1560s, "to take part in a masquerade" (a sense now obsolete); 1580s as "to wear a mask," also "disguise (feelings, etc.) under an assumed outward show;" from mask (n.) and French masquer. Military sense of "conceal" (a battery, etc.) from the view of the enemy" is from 1706. Related: Masked; masking. Masking tape recorded from 1927; so called because it is used to block out certain surfaces before painting.
early 15c., "to reload" (a vessel), from re- "again, back" + charge (v.) "to load" (q.v.); modeled on Old French rechargier "to load, load back on" (13c.). The general sense of "put a fresh charge in, reload, refill" is by 1839 and might be a new formation from the same elements. The meaning "re-power" a battery is from 1876, hence the figurative senses of "restore fitness, refresh mental composure" (by 1921). Related: Recharged; recharging. The noun is recorded from 1610s in English, "a fresh charge or load."