Etymology
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Balearic (adj.)

"of or pertaining to the islands in the Mediterranean just east of Spain," 1660s, from Latin Balearicus, from Greek Baliarikos, from the ancient name of the islands and their inhabitants; traditionally "the slingers" (from ballein "to throw, sling") in reference to their weapons.

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ballista (n.)

ancient war engine used for throwing missiles, late 14c., from Latin ballista"military machine for hurling stones," from Greek ballistes, from ballein "to throw, to throw so as to hit," also in a looser sense, "to put, place, lay" (from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach").

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belemnite (n.)

type of fossil common in Jurassic sediments, the remains of an extinct squid-like animal, 1640s, from Greek belemnon "dart" (from ballein "to throw, to throw so as to hit," from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach") + -ite (1). So called for their shape.

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anabolic (adj.)

"pertaining to the process of building up" (especially in metabolism), 1876, with -ic + Greek anabolē "that which is thrown up; a mound," from anaballein "to throw or toss up," from ana "up, upward" (see ana-) + ballein "to throw" (from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach").

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catabolism (n.)

1876, katabolism, "destructive metabolism," from Greek katabole "a throwing down" (also "a foundation"), from kataballein "to throw down," from kata "down" (see cata-) + ballein "to throw" (from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach"). Barnhart says probably formed in English on the model of metabolism. Spelling Latinized from 1889.

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ballistics (n.)

"art of throwing large missiles; science of the motion of projectiles," 1753, with -ics + Latin ballista "ancient military machine for hurling stones," from Greek ballistes, from ballein "to throw, to throw so as to hit," also in a looser sense, "to put, place, lay" (from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach").

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astrobleme (n.)

"crypto-explosion structure on Earth caused by meteorite or asteroid impact," 1961, literally "star-wound," from astro- "star" + Greek bleme "throw of a missile; wound caused by a missile," from ballein "to throw" (from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach"). Coined by U.S. geologist Robert S. Dietz.

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discobolus (n.)

"a discus-thrower," 1727, from Latin, from Greek diskobolos, from diskos "quoit, discus" (see disk (n.)) + -bolos "thrower," related to ballein "to throw" (from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach"). Especially in reference to a famous ancient Greek bronze statue by Myron (5c. B.C.E.), known now only through Roman copies.

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ballistic (adj.)

1775, "pertaining to construction and use of thrown objects," ultimately from Greek ballein "to throw" (from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach"). Of rockets or missiles (ones that are guided while under propulsion, but fall freely), from 1949. Ballistic missile is attested from 1954; they attain extreme heights, hence figurative expression go ballistic (1981) "become irrationally angry."

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metabolism (n.)

1878 in the physiology sense of "the sum of the chemical changes within the body by which the protoplasm is renewed, changed, or prepared for excretion," from French métabolisme, from Greek metabole "a change," from metaballein "to change," from meta "change" (see meta-) + ballein "to throw" (from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach"). The word also has been used in theology, poetics, and entomology.

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