Etymology
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cocci (n.)

spherical-shaped bacteria, plural of Latin coccus (attested from 1883 as a bacterium name), from Greek kokkos "berry" (see cocco-).

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bacteriophage (n.)

"virus that parasitizes a bacterium by infecting it and reproducing inside it," 1921, from French bactériophage (1917), from bacterio-, combining form of bacteria, + -phage.

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coccus (n.)

1763 as an insect genus (including the cochineal bug and the kermes); 1883 as a type of bacterium; from Greek kokkos "grain, seed, berry" (see cocco-). Related: Coccoid.

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streptococcus (n.)
bacteria genus, 1877, Modern Latin, coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos "berry" (see cocco-). So called because the bacteria usually form chains.
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legionnaire (n.)
1818, from French légionnaire, from légion (see legion). Legionnaires' Disease, caused by Legionella pneumophilia, was named after the lethal outbreak of July 1976 at the American Legion convention in Philadelphia's Bellevue Stratford Hotel. Hence also Legionella as the name of the bacterium.
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streptomycin (n.)

antibiotic drug, 1944, from Modern Latin Streptomyces, genus name of the bacterium from which the antibiotic was obtained, from strepto- "twisted" + -mycin, element used in forming names of substances obtained from fungi. First isolated by U.S. microbiologist Selman Abraham Waksman (1888-1973) and others.

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staphylococcus (n.)
(plural staphylococci), 1887, Modern Latin, the genus name, coined (on model of streptococcus) in 1882 by Scottish surgeon and bacteriologist Alexander Ogston (1844-1929). The first element is from Greek staphyle "bunch of grapes," which possibly is from PIE *stabh-, variant of *stebh- "post, stem; to support" (see staff (n.)). The second element is Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos "berry, grain" (see cocco-). So called because the bacteria usually bunch together in irregular masses.
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microbe (n.)

popular name for a bacterium or other extremely small living being, 1878, from French microbe, "badly coined ... by Sédillot" [Weekley] in 1878 from Latinized form of Greek mikros "small" (see micro-) + bios "life" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live"). Intended to mean literally "a small living being," the use of bios is incorrect, as in modern science generally (see bio-); in Greek the compound would mean "short-lived."

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bacteria (n.)

1847, plural of Modern Latin bacterium, from Greek bakterion "small staff," diminutive of baktron "stick, rod, staff, cudgel." So called because the first ones observed were rod-shaped. Introduced as a scientific word 1838 by German naturalist Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. A classical plural sometimes also erroneously used as a singular.

The Greek word is from a PIE *bak- "staff used for support, peg" (compare Latin baculum "rod, walking stick;" Irish bacc, Welsh bach "hook, crooked staff;" Middle Dutch pegel "peg, pin, bolt"). De Vaan writes, "Since *b was very rare in PIE, and Celtic shows an unexplained geminate, we are probably dealing with a loanword from an unidentified source."

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