Etymology
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bargain (n.)

mid-14c., "business transaction or agreement; negotiations, dealing," also "that which is acquired by bargaining," from Old French bargaine "business, trade, transaction, deal," from bargaignier (see bargain (v.)).

The meaning "article priced for special sale, something bought or sold at a low price" is from 1899; a bargain basement (1899) originally was a basement floor in a store where bargains were displayed. The phrase into the bargain "over and above what was stipulated," hence "moreover," is from 1630s.

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bargain (v.)

c. 1400, "engage in business transactions, discuss or arrange terms of a transaction; to vend or sell," from Old French bargaignier "to haggle over the price" (12c., Modern French barguigner), perhaps from Frankish *borganjan "to lend" or some other Germanic source, ultimately from Proto-Germanic *borgan "to pledge, lend, borrow" (source also of Old High German borgen; Old English borgian; from PIE root *bhergh- (1) "to hide, protect;" compare borrow).

Diez and others suggest that the French word comes from Late Latin barca "a barge," because it "carries goods to and fro." There are difficulties with both suggestions. Related: Bargained; bargaining. To bargain for "arrange for beforehand" is from 1801.

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barge (v.)

"to journey by barge," 1590s, from barge (n.). The form barge into and the sense of "crash heavily into," in reference to the rough handling of barges, are attested by 1898. Related: Barged; barging.

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barge (n.)

early 14c., "seagoing vessel of moderate size with sails," from Old French barge "boat, ship," Old Provençal barca, from Medieval Latin barga, perhaps from Celtic, or perhaps from Latin *barica, from Greek baris "Egyptian boat," from Coptic bari"small boat."

From late 14c. as "river craft; barge used on state occasions; raft for ferrying;" the meaning "flat-bottomed freight boat" dates from late 15c. In former times also "a magnificently adorned, elegant boat of state," for royalty, magistrates, etc. (1580s).

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bargeman (n.)

"man employed on a barge," mid-15c., from barge (n.) + man (n.).

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bariatric (adj.)

"of or pertaining to obesity," 1976, from Greek baros "weight, a weight, burden," related to barys "heavy" (from PIE root *gwere- (1) "heavy") + -iatric.

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barista (n.)

"bartender in a coffee shop," as a purely English word in use by 1992, from Italian, where it is said to derive ultimately from English bar (n.2), as borrowed into Italian. The word is of generic gender and may be applied with equal accuracy to women and men (it is said that the typical barista in Italy is a man).

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baritone (n.)

c. 1600, "male voice between tenor and bass," from Italian baritono, from Greek barytonos "deep-toned, deep-sounding," from barys "heavy, deep," also, of sound, "strong, deep, bass" (from PIE root *gwere- (1) "heavy") + tonos "tone," from PIE root *ten- "to stretch."

Technically, "ranging from lower A in bass clef to lower F in treble clef." The meaning "singer having a baritone voice" is from 1821. As a type of brass band instrument, it is attested from 1949. As an adjective, by 1729 in reference to the voice, 1854 of musical instruments (originally the concertina).

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barium (n.)

1808, coined in Modern Latin by its discoverer, English chemist Sir Humphry Davy, because it was present in the mineral barytes "heavy spar" (barium sulphate), so named by Lavoisier from Greek barys "heavy" (from PIE root *gwere- (1) "heavy"). The metal is actually relatively light. With chemical ending -ium. Related: Baric.

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bark (n.2)

"any small vessel or ship," early 15c., from French barque "boat" (15c.), from Late Latin barca, which is probably cognate with Vulgar Latin *barica (see barge (n.)). The more precise sense of "three-masted ship fore-and-aft rigged on the mizzenmast" (17c.) often is spelled barque to distinguish it.

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