Etymology
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Lycurgus 
Latinized form of Greek Lykourgos, name of the traditional law-giver of Sparta and author of its extraordinary constitution.
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Machiavelli 

Florentine statesman and author (1469-1527); see Machiavellian. His name was Englished 16c.-18c. as Machiavel.

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Voltaire 

name taken from 1718 by French author François Marie Arouet after his imprisonment in the Bastille on suspicion of having written some satirical verses; originally de Voltaire. The signification is uncertain.

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Horst Wessel 
name of a Nazi activist and SA bandleader (1907-1930), author in 1929 of the lyrics to what became the German Nazi party anthem, known after as the Horst-Wessel-Lied ("Horst Wessel Song").
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Junius 
masc. proper name, from Latin Junius, name of a Roman gens. In U.S. history, the pseudonym of the author of a famous series of letters in the "Public Advertiser" from 1768-1772 critical of crown policy. Related: Junian.
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Jehovist (n.)
1844 as the name given by scholars to the presumed author or authors of the parts of the Hexateuch in which the divine name is written Yhwh (see Jehovah) + -ist. Opposed to the Elohist. Sometimes Jahvist is used. Related: Jehovistic.
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Peter Principle (n.)

1968, "in a hierarchy, every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence," named for (and by) Laurence Johnston Peter (1919-1990) Canadian-born U.S. educationalist and author, who described it in his book of the same name (1969).

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Homer 
traditional name of the supposed author of the "Iliad" and the "Odyssey," from Latin Homerus, from Greek Homeros. It is identical to Greek homeros "a hostage," said to also mean in dialects "blind" (the connecting notion is "going with a companion"). But the name also has been otherwise explained.
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David 

masc. proper name, in Old Testament name of the second king of Israel and Judah and author of psalms, from Hebrew Dawidh, literally "darling, beloved friend." The name was common in England and Scotland by 12c. but was popular much earlier in Wales. A nickname form was Dawe, hence surnames Dawson, Dawkins. A top 10 name for boys born in the U.S. from 1934 to 1992. Related: Davidic; Davidian.

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Rambo 

used allusively from 1985, in reference to John Rambo, hero of Canadian-American author David Morrell's novel "First Blood" (1972), popularized as portrayed by Sylvester Stallone in the Hollywood movie version (1982), a U.S. Vietnam veteran, "macho and self-sufficient, and bent on violent retribution" [OED]. The family name is an old one in New Jersey and Pennsylvania (where Morrell supposedly first heard it), originally Swedish, sometimes said to represent Swedish place name Ramberget, or to be from French Huguenots who took refuge in Sweden.

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