Etymology
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assumption (n.)

c. 1300, "the reception, uncorrupted, of the Virgin Mary into Heaven" (also the Aug. 15 Church festival commemorating this, Feast of the Assumption), from Old French assumpcion, asumpsion (13c.) and directly from Latin assumptionem (nominative assumptio) "a taking up, receiving, acceptance, adoption," noun of action from past-participle stem of assumere "take up, take to oneself" (see assume).

Meaning "minor premise of a syllogism" is late 14c. Meaning "appropriation of a right or possession" is mid-15c. in English, from a Latin use (Cicero). Meaning "action of taking for oneself" is recorded from 1580s; that of "something taken for granted" is from 1620s.

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petitio principii 

Latin, from petitio "petition" (see petition (n.)) + genitive of principium (see principle (n.)). It translates Greek to en arkhē aiteisthai "an assumption at the outset."

In logic, the assumption of that which in the beginning was set forth to be proved; begging the question: a fallacy or fault of reasoning belonging to argumentations whose conclusions really follow from their premises, either necessarily or with the degree of probability pretended, the fault consisting in the assumption of a premise which no person holding the antagonistic views will admit. [Century Dictionary]
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speciesism (n.)
"discrimination against certain animals based on assumption of human superiority," first attested 1975 in Richard D. Ryder's "Victims of Science," from species + -ism.
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supposition (n.)
early 15c., a term in logic, "assumption, hypothesis," from Medieval Latin suppositionem (nominative suppositio) "assumption, hypothesis, a supposition," noun of action from past participle stem of supponere (see suppose); influenced by Greek hypothesis. In classical Latin, "a putting under, substitution." Earlier in English in the same sense was supposal (late 14c.). Related: Suppositional; suppositionally.
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dilation (n.)

"act of dilating," 1590s, formed from dilate on the mistaken assumption that the -ate in that word was the Latin verbal suffix (it is instead part of the stem); the proper form, dilatation, is older (c. 1400).

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contingence (n.)

late 14c., "the assumption or possibility that that which happens is dependent upon circumstances or chance," from Medieval Latin contingentia, from contingent- present participle stem of contingere "to touch" (see contact (n.)).

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dol (n.)

unit of intensity of pain, 1947, from Latin dolor "pain, grief, sorrow," perhaps from PIE root *delh- "to chop" "under the assumption than 'pain' was expressed by the feeling of 'being torn apart'" [de Vaan].

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Yahweh 
1869, hypothetical reconstruction of the tetragrammaton YHWH (see Jehovah), based on the assumption that the tetragrammaton is the imperfective of Hebrew verb hawah, earlier form of hayah "was," in the sense of "the one who is, the existing."
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materialization (n.)

also materialisation, 1822, "act of investing with or assuming a material form; a change from a spiritual, ideal, or imaginary state to a state of matter," noun of action from materialize. In spiritualism, "the assumption (by a spirit) of a bodily form," by 1875.

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Dolores 

fem. proper name, from Spanish Maria de los Dolores, literally "Mary of the Sorrows," from plural of dolor, from Latin dolor "pain, sorrow," perhaps from PIE root *delh- "to chop" "under the assumption than 'pain' was expressed by the feeling of 'being torn apart'" [de Vaan]. 

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