art brut (n.)

"art done by prisoners, lunatics, etc.," by 1948, as l'art brut, in a brief biography of Jean Dubuffet for Yale French Studies. French, literally "raw art" (see art (n.) + brute (adj.)).

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commedia dell'arte (n.)

"improvised popular comedy involving stock characters," 1823, Italian, literally "comedy of art;" see comedy + art (n.).

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art deco (n.)

decorative and architectural style popular from 1925-1940, the name attested from 1966, from shortening of French art décoratif, literally "decorative art" (see decorative); the French phrase is from the title of L'Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, held in Paris in 1925.

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art nouveau 

decorative, design, and architectural style popular from c. 1890 to World War I, characterized by intricate designs and flowing curves based on natural forms, 1900, from French l'art nouveau (by 1895), literally "new art" (see novel (adj.)). Called in German Jugendstil.

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beaux arts (n.)

"the fine arts," 1821, from French; also in reference to Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and the widely imitated conventional type of art and architecture advocated there.

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tae kwon do 

1967, from Korean, said to represent tae "kick" + kwon "fist" + do "art, way, method."

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liberal arts (n.)

late 14c., translating Latin artes liberales; the name for the seven attainments directed to intellectual enlargement, rather than immediate practical purpose, and thus deemed worthy of a free man (liberal in this sense is opposed to servile or mechanical). They were divided into the trivium — grammar, logic, rhetoric (see trivial) — and the quadrivium — arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy. Explained by Fowler (1926) as "the education designed for a gentleman (Latin liber a free man) & ... opposed on the one hand to technical or professional or any special training, & on the other to education that stops short before manhood is reached."

The study of [the classics] is fitly called a liberal education, because it emancipates the mind from every narrow provincialism, whether of egoism or tradition, and is the apprenticeship that every one must serve before becoming a free brother of the guild which passes the torch of life from age to age. [James Russell Lowell, "Among my Books"]
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hors de combat (adv.)

1757, French, literally "out of combat." Hors (prep.) "out, beyond," is from Latin foris (adv.) "outside," literally "out of doors" (see foreign). De is from Latin de "of." For combat see combat (n.). A similar expression from French is hors concours "out of competition" (1884), of a work of art in an exhibition.

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son of a bitch 

1707 as a direct phrase, but implied much earlier, and Old Norse had bikkju-sonr. Abbreviated form SOB from 1918; form sumbitch attested in writing by 1969.

Abide þou þef malicious!
Biche-sone þou drawest amis
þou schalt abigge it ywis!
["Of Arthour & of Merlin," c. 1330]

"Probably the most common American vulgarity from about the middle of the eighteenth century to the middle of the twentieth" [Rawson].

Our maid-of-all-work in that department [indecency] is son-of-a-bitch, which seems as pale and ineffectual to a Slav or a Latin as fudge does to us. There is simply no lift in it, no shock, no sis-boom-ah. The dumbest policeman in Palermo thinks of a dozen better ones between breakfast and the noon whistle. [H.L. Mencken, "The American Language," 4th ed., 1936, p.317-8]

Elsewhere, complaining of the tepidity of the American vocabulary of profanity, Mencken writes that the toned-down form son-of-a-gun "is so lacking in punch that the Italians among us have borrowed it as a satirical name for an American: la sanemagogna is what they call him, and by it they indicate their contempt for his backwardness in the art that is one of their great glories."

It was in 1934 also that the New York Daily News, with commendable frankness, in reporting a hearing in Washington at which Senator Huey P. Long featured, forsook the old-time dashes and abbreviations and printed the complete epithet "son of a bitch." [Stanley Walker, "City Editor," 1934]
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