Etymology
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argument (n.)
early 14c., "statements and reasoning in support of a proposition or causing belief in a doubtful matter," from Old French arguement "reasoning, opinion; accusation, charge" (13c.), from Latin argumentum "a logical argument; evidence, ground, support, proof," from arguere "make clear, make known, prove" (see argue). Sense passed through "subject of contention" (1590s) to "a quarrel" (by 1911), a sense formerly attached to argumentation.
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counter-argument (n.)

also counterargument, "argument set forth to oppose or refute another argument," 1812, from counter- + argument. Counter-arguing is attested from 1660s.

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reargument (n.)

also re-argument, "renewed argument," as of a case in court, by 1811; see re- "back, again" + argument

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argumentative (adj.)
mid-15c., "pertaining to arguments," from Old French argumentatif "able to argue or reason well," or directly from Medieval Latin argumentat-, past participle stem of argumentari "adduce proof, draw a conclusion," from argumentum (see argument) + -ive. Meaning "fond of arguing" is recorded from 1660s. Related: Argumentatively; argumentativeness.
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argumentation (n.)

mid-15c., "presentation of formal arguments," from Old French argumentacion (14c.), from Latin argumentationem (nominative argumentatio) "the bringing forth of a proof," noun of action from past-participle stem of argumentari "adduce proof, draw a conclusion," from argumentum (see argument). Meaning "debate, wrangling, argument back and forth" is from 1530s.

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refutation (n.)

1540s, refutacion, "act of disproving; overthrowing of an argument" (by countervailing argument or proof), from French réfutation (16c.) and directly from Latin refutationem (nominative refutatio) "disproof of a claim or argument," noun of action from past-participle stem of refutare ""drive back; rebut, disprove" (see refute).

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controvert (v.)

c. 1600, "dispute (something), oppose by argument" (a sense now obsolete); 1610s, "to make the subject of verbal contention, debate, discuss; contend against (someone) in argument," probably a back-formation from controversy. Related: Controverted; controverting; controvertible.

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arguably (adv.)
"as may be shown by argument," 1871, from arguable + -ly (2).
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counterpoint (n.3)
Origin and meaning of counterpoint

"the opposite point" (in an argument), 1590s, from counter- + point (n.1). As a verb from 1940s.

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impune (adj.)
"unpunished" (obsolete), 1610s, from Latin impunis "unpunished" (see impunity). For the word meaning "attack by argument," see impugn.
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