Etymology
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archaeoastronomy (n.)

a general term for disciplined studies of ancient astronomies, 1971, from archaeo- "ancient" + astronomy.

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archaebacteria (n.)

a name for microorganisms similar to bacteria but seemingly more primitive, 1977, from archaeo- "primitive, ancient" + bacteria. Singular is archaebacterium.

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archaeo- 

before vowels archae-, word-forming element in scientific compounds meaning "ancient, olden, primitive, primeval, from the beginning," from Latinized form of Greek arkhaios "ancient, primeval," from arkhē "beginning," verbal noun of arkhein "to be the first," hence "to begin" (see archon).

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archaeology (n.)

c. 1600, "ancient history," from French archéologie (16c.) or directly from Greek arkhaiologia "the study of ancient things;" see archaeo- + -ology. The meaning "scientific study of ancient peoples and past civilizations" is recorded by 1825.

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archaeopteryx (n.)

Jurassic fossil animal long considered the oldest known bird (in 21c. new candidates emerged), 1871, from German (1861), coined in Modern Latin by German paleontologist Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer, from archaeo- "ancient, primitive" + Greek pteryx "wing" (from PIE root *pet- "to rush, to fly"). Discovered (first as a single feather) by Andreas Wagner in 1860 or '61 in Bavaria.

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archaeological (adj.)
"pertaining to archaeology," 1766, in the antiquarian sense, from archaeology + -ical. Earlier was archaeologic (1731). Related: Archaeologically.
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archaeologist (n.)
1824; see archaeology + -ist. Other early forms were archaeologian (1820), archaeologue (1839, from French archéologue). Greek arkhaiologos meant "antiquary."
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