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Arab (n.)
"one of the native people of Arabia and surrounding regions," late 14c. (Arabes, a plural form), from Old French Arabi, from Latin Arabs (accusative Arabem), from Greek Araps (genitive Arabos), from Arabic 'arab, indigenous name of the people, perhaps literally "inhabitant of the desert" and related to Hebrew arabha "desert."

Meaning "homeless little wanderer, child of the street" is from 1848 (Arab of the city, but the usual form was city arab), in reference to the nomadic ways of the Bedouin. Arab League formed in Cairo, March 22, 1945.
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Arabia 
1711; see Arab + -ia. The older name for "the country of Arabia" was Araby (late 13c.).
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Arabian 
c. 1300, adjective and noun; see Arab + -ian. As a prized type of horse, it is attested from 1660s. The Arabian bird was the phoenix.
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pan-Arabism (n.)

"the ideal of a political union of the Arab states," 1930; see pan- + Arab + -ism.

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Mozarab (n.)

"assimilated Christian in Moorish Spain," one who was allowed to continue practicing his religion in exchange for political allegiance, from Spanish Mozarabe "would-be Arab," from Arabic mostarib, from a desiderative verbal form of Arab. Related: Mozarabian (1706); Mozarabic.

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arabesque (n.)

1786, "Moorish or Arabic ornamental design," from French arabesque (16c.), from Italian arabesco, from Arabo "Arab" (see Arab), with reference to Moorish architecture. In reference to an ornamented theme or passage in piano music it is attested by 1853, originally the title given in 1839 by Robert Schumann to one of his piano pieces ("Arabeske in C major"). As a ballet pose, first attested 1830.

The name arabesque applied to the flowing ornament of Moorish invention is exactly suited to express those graceful lines which are their counterpart in the art of dancing. ["A Manual of the Theory and Practice of Classical Theatrical Dancing," 1922]
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Arabic (adj.)
"belonging to Arabia," early 14c., from Old French arabique (13c.) and directly from Latin Arabicus "Arabic" (see Arab). Old English used Arabisc "Arabish." Originally in reference to gum arabic. The noun meaning "Arabic language" (a Semitic tongue, the language of the Arabs and the Quran) is from late 14c.

Arabic numerals (actually Indian) first attested 1727; they were introduced in Europe by Gerbert of Aurillac (later Pope Sylvester II) after a visit to Islamic Spain in 967-970. A prominent man of science, he taught in the diocesan school at Reims, but the numbers made little headway against conservative opposition in the Church until after the Crusades. The earliest depiction of them in English, in "The Crafte of Nombrynge" (c. 1350) correctly identifies them as "teen figurys of Inde."
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trucial (adj.)
1876, from truce + -ial. Trucial States, the pre-1971 name of the United Arab Emirates, is attested from 1891, in reference to the 1835 maritime truce between Britain and the Arab sheiks of Oman.
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souk (n.)
Arab bazaar, 1826, from French souk, from Arabic suq "marketplace."
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oud (n.)
"lute or mandolin of Arab lands," 1738, from Arabic 'ud, literally "wood." Compare lute.
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