Etymology
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tutelage (n.)
"guardianship," c. 1600, from -age + Latin tutela "a watching, keeping, safeguard, protection," from variant past participle stem of tueri "watch over" (see tutor (n.)). Meaning "instruction" first appeared 1857.
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knee-jerk (n.)
patellar reflex, a neurological phenomenon discovered and named in 1876; see knee (n.) + jerk (n.1) in the medical sense. The figurative use appeared soon after the phrase was coined.
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du jour (adj.)

from French plat du jour "dish of the day," which appeared from early 20c. on restaurant menus; abstracted as an all-purpose modifier by 1989. For jour "day" see journey (n.).

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Ms. 

(plural Mses.), in modern continuous use from about 1949, considered a blend of Miss and Mrs. The abbreviation had appeared or been suggested before in this sense, since at least c. 1900.

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saleable (adj.)

also, but less commonly, salable, "purchasable; capable of being sold, finding a ready market," 1520s, from sale + -able. Related: Salability; saleability (1797) which seems to have appeared first in Coleridge.

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azoic (adj.)

"pertaining to the period of Earth's history before life appeared," 1843, with -ic + Greek azōos, from a- "not, without" (see a- (3)) + zōon "animal," here used in the sense "life," from PIE root *gwei- "to live."

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callous (adj.)
c. 1400, "hardened," in the physical sense, from Latin callosus "thick-skinned," from callus, callum "hard skin" (see callus). The figurative sense of "unfeeling, hardened in the mind" appeared in English by 1670s. Related: Callously; callousness.
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cellulite (n.)

"lumpy, dimpled fat," 1968, from French cellulite, from cellule "a small cell" (16c., from Latin cellula "little cell," diminutive of cella; see cell) + -ite (see -ite (1)). The word appeared mainly in fashion magazines and advertisements for beauty treatments.

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derringer (n.)

"short-barreled, large-caliber pistol," very effective at close range, 1850, for Henry Deringer (1786-1868), U.S. gunsmith who invented it in the 1840s. The prevailing misspelled form is how his name appeared on the many counterfeits and imitations.

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tenderloin (n.)
1828, "tender part of a loin of pork or beef," from tender (adj.) + loin. The slang meaning "police district noted for vice" appeared first 1887 in New York, on the notion of the neighborhood of the chief theaters, restaurants, etc., being the "juciest cut" for graft and blackmail.
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