Etymology
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anthropology (n.)

"science of the natural history of man," 1590s, originally especially of the relation between physiology and psychology, from Modern Latin anthropologia or coined independently in English from anthropo- + -logy. In Aristotle, anthrōpologos is used literally, as "speaking of man." Related: Anthropologic; anthropological.

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anthropological (adj.)

"pertaining to or relating to anthropology," 1786, from anthropology + -ical. Related: Anthropologically.

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anthropologist (n.)

"student or expert in anthropology," 1798, from anthropology + -ist. Attested from 1783 in German.

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*ner- (2)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "man," also "vigorous, vital, strong."

It forms all or part of: Alexander; Andrew; andro-; androgynous; android; Andromache; Andromeda; andron; anthropo-; anthropocentric; anthropology; anthropomorphous; Leander; lycanthropy; Lysander; misanthrope; pachysandra; philander; philanthropy; polyandria; polyandrous.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit nar-, Armenian ayr, Welsh ner "a man;" Greek aner (genitive andros) "a man, a male" (as opposed to a woman, a youth, or a god).

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-gamy 

word-forming element meaning "marriage" in anthropology and "fertilization" in biology, from Greek -gamia, from gamos "marriage" (see gamete).

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xanthous (adj.)

1829, "fair-haired and light-complexioned," from Greek xanthos "yellow," of unknown origin (see xantho-). But the word also was used in 19c. anthropology as "specifying the yellow or Mongoloid type of mankind" [Century Dictionary].

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demography (n.)

"that branch of anthropology which studies life-conditions of a people by its vital and social statistics," 1880, from Greek dēmos "people" (see demotic) + -graphy.

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sacral (adj.)

1767, in anatomy, "of or pertaining to the sacrum," the bone at the base of the spine (see sacrum), from Modern Latin sacralis. In anthropology, "pertaining to religious rites," 1882, from Latin sacrum "sacred thing, rite," neuter of sacer "sacred" (see sacred). Related: sacralization; sacrality.

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doula (n.)

"woman trained to assist another woman during childbirth and provide support to the family after the baby is born," by 1972, a coinage in anthropology, from Modern Greek doule, from ancient Greek doule "servant-woman," fem. of doulos "slave, servant," which probably is a word of Pre-Greek origin.

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polygeny (n.)

1864, in anthropology, "the doctrine that the human race is not one but consists of many distinct species" (opposed to monogeny or monogenism), from Late Greek polygenēs "of many kinds," from polys "many" (see poly-) + -genēs "born" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget"). By c. 1970 the same word was used in a different sense, in reference to the theory that multiple genes contribute to the form or variant of some particular trait of an organism. Another word for the anthropological theory was polygenism (1857).

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