Etymology
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aluminum (n.)

1812, coined by English chemist Sir Humphry Davy, from alumina, alumine, name given by French chemists late 18c. to aluminum oxide, from Latin alumen "alum" (see alum). Davy originally called it alumium (1808), then amended this to aluminum, which remains the U.S. word, but British editors in 1812 further amended it to aluminium, the modern preferred British form, to better harmonize with other metallic element names (sodium, potassium, etc.).

Aluminium, for so we shall take the liberty of writing the word, in preference to aluminum, which has a less classical sound. [Quarterly Review, September 1812]

Aluminum foil attested by 1859; popularized in food packaging from c. 1950.

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aluminium (n.)
1812, chiefly British form of aluminum (q.v.).
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tourmaline (n.)
complete silicate of aluminum and boron, 1759, from French or German, ultimately from Sinhalese toramalli, a general name for cornelian.
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bauxite (n.)
"clayey mineral containing aluminum," 1861, from French bauxite (1821), from Les Baux, near Arles, in France, where it first was found. The place name is from Provençal Li Baus, literally "the precipices."
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corundum (n.)

"very hard mineral" (crystalline aluminum oxide) used for grinding and polishing other gems, steel, etc., 1728, from Anglo-Indian, from Tamil (Dravidian) kurundam "ruby sapphire" (Sanskrit kuruvinda), which is of unknown origin. It is a dull or opaque variety of sapphire, amethyst, ruby, and topaz; in hardness it is next to diamond.

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turquoise (n.)

greenish-blue precious stone, 1560s, from French, replacing Middle English turkeis, turtogis (late 14c.), from Old French fem. adjective turqueise "Turkish," in pierre turqueise "Turkish stone," so called because it was first brought to Europe from Turkestan or some other Turkish dominion. Cognate with Spanish turquesa, Medieval Latin (lapis) turchesius, Middle Dutch turcoys, German türkis, Swedish turkos. As an adjective, 1570s. As a color name, attested from 1853. "Chemically it is a hydrated phosphate of aluminum and copper" [Flood].

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topaz (n.)
colored crystalline gem, late 13c., from Old French topace (11c.), from Latin topazus (source also of Spanish topacio, Italian topazio), from Greek topazos, topazion, of obscure origin. Pliny says it was named for a remote island in the Red or Arabian Sea, where it was mined, the island so named for being hard to find (from Greek topazein "to divine, to try to locate"); but this might be folk etymology, and instead the word might be from the root of Sanskrit tapas "heat, fire." In the Middle Ages used for almost any yellow stone. To the Greeks and Romans, possibly yellow olivine or yellow sapphire. In modern science, fluo-silicate of aluminum. As a color name from 1908.
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