Etymology
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alkaline (adj.)
1670s, "pertaining to alkalis," from alkali + -ine (1). Of soils, from 1850. Related: Alkalinity.
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alkalize (v.)
"render alkaline," 1725 (implied in alkalized), from French alcaliser; see alkali.
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creatinine (n.)

"alkaline substance obtained by the action of acids on creatine," by 1847, from creatine + chemical suffix -ine (2).

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magnesium (n.)

silvery-white metallic element, 1808, coined by English chemist Sir Humphry Davy from the white alkaline earth magnesia (q.v.), in which it was found. With metallic element ending -ium.

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alkali (n.)
late 14c., "soda ash," from Medieval Latin alkali, from Arabic al-qaliy "the ashes, burnt ashes" (of saltwort, which abounds in soda due to growing in alkaline soils), from qala "to roast in a pan." Later extended to similar substances, natural or manufactured. The modern chemistry sense is from 1813.
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sodium (n.)
metallic alkaline element, 1807, coined by English chemist Humphry Davy from soda; so called because the element was isolated from caustic soda (sodium hydroxide). The chemical symbol Na is from natrium, alternative name for the element proposed by Berzelius from natron, a name of a type of soda.
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radium (n.)

radioactive metallic alkaline earth element, 1899, from French radium, formed in Modern Latin from Latin radius "ray" (see radius). With metallic element ending -ium. Named 1898 after identification by Marie Curie and her husband; so called for its power of emitting energy in the form of rays.

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cesium (n.)

also caesium, rare alkaline metal, 1861, coined by Bunsen and Kirchhoff in 1860 in Modern Latin (caesium), from Latin caesius "blue-gray" (especially of eyes), in reference to the two prominent blue lines in its spectrum, by which it was first identified. With metallic element ending -ium. The first metal discovered by the aid of a spectroscope.

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dishpan (n.)

also dish-pan, "pan in which dishes are washed," 1858, from dish (n.) + pan (n.). Dishpan hands "inflamed or sore hands caused by housework" is attested by 1935, an advertiser's phrase.

In 1922, Lever Brothers began to advertise Lux in this country to "rid your hands of that dishpan look." Without any break since then the company has alluded to "dishpan hands" which come from using soap that is too strong in alkaline content. [Printers' Ink, vol. 173, 1935]
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lye (n.)
Old English læg, leag "lye, water impregnated with alkaline salt absorbed from the ashes of wood by leaching," from Proto-Germanic *laugo (source also of Middle Dutch loghe, Dutch loog, Old High German louga, German Lauge "lye"), from PIE root *leue- "to wash."

The substance formerly was used in place of soap, hence Old High German luhhen "to wash," Old Norse laug "hot bath, hot spring," Danish lørdag, Swedish lördag "Saturday," literally "washing-day," "the day appropriated by the Scandinavians to that exercise" [Century Dictionary]. Chamber-lye in early Modern English was the name for urine used as a detergent.
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