1610s, "relating to the land," from French agrarienne, from Latin agrarius "of the land," from ager (genitive agri) "a field" (from PIE root *agro- "field").
The specialized meaning "having to do with cultivated land" is recorded by 1792. Originally, and often subsequently, "pertaining to the division or sharing of landed property," which was the Roman sense. Earlier in English as agrarie (1530s), from Latin agraria. As a noun, by 1650s ("Oceana") as "an agrarian law;" by 1818 as "one in favor of redistribution of landed property."
1530s, "companionship, friendly association with others," from Old French societe "company" (12c., Modern French société), from Latin societatem (nominative societas) "fellowship, association, alliance, union, community," from socius "companion, ally," from PIE *sokw-yo-, suffixed form of root *sekw- (1) "to follow."
Meaning "group, club" is from 1540s, originally of associations of persons for some specific purpose. Meaning "people bound by neighborhood and intercourse aware of living together in an ordered community" is from 1630s. Sense of "the more cultivated part of any community" first recorded 1823, hence "fashionable people and their doings." The Society Islands were named 1769 by Cook on his third Pacific voyage in honor of the Royal Society, which financed his travels across the world to observe the transit of Venus.
Italian immigrant secret society in U.S., 1904; earlier a Spanish anarchist society, both from the warning mark they displayed to potential victims.
"Chinese secret society," 1883, from Cantonese t'ong "assembly hall."