"person who initiates into mysteries," 1550s, from Latin mystagogus "a guide to the mysteries," from Greek mystagōgos, from mystēs "one initiated into the mysteries" (see mystery (n.1)) + agōgos "leading, a leader," from agein "to lead" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move"). Related: Mystagogic; mystagogical.
"leading to sleep, inducing sleep," 1868, from French hypnagogique, from Greek hypnos "sleep" (see somnolence) + agōgos "leading" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move"). Etymologically, "inducing sleep," but used mostly with a sense "pertaining to the state of consciousness when falling asleep." Related: Hypnagogically.
late 14c., pedagoge, "schoolmaster, teacher of children," from Old French pedagoge "teacher of children" (14c.), from Latin paedagogus, from Greek paidagōgos "slave who escorts boys to school and generally supervises them," later "a teacher or trainer of boys," from pais (genitive paidos) "child" (see pedo-) + agōgos "leader," from agein "to lead" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move").
"[N]ow used, generally with a sense of contempt, for a dogmatic and narrow-minded teacher" [Century Dictionary, 1895]; the hostile implications in the word are from at least the time of Pepys (1650s). Related: Pedagogal.
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to drive, draw out or forth, move."
It forms all or part of: act; action; active; actor; actual; actuary; actuate; agency; agenda; agent; agile; agitation; agony; ambagious; ambassador; ambiguous; anagogical; antagonize; apagoge; assay; Auriga; auto-da-fe; axiom; cache; castigate; coagulate; cogent; cogitation; counteract; demagogue; embassy; epact; essay; exact; exacta; examine; exigency; exiguous; fumigation; glucagon; hypnagogic; interact; intransigent; isagoge; litigate; litigation; mitigate; mystagogue; navigate; objurgate; pedagogue; plutogogue; prodigal; protagonist; purge; react; redact; retroactive; squat; strategy; synagogue; transact; transaction; variegate.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek agein "to lead, guide, drive, carry off," agon "assembly, contest in the games," agōgos "leader," axios "worth, worthy, weighing as much;" Sanskrit ajati "drives," ajirah "moving, active;" Latin actus "a doing; a driving, impulse, a setting in motion; a part in a play;" agere "to set in motion, drive, drive forward," hence "to do, perform," agilis "nimble, quick;" Old Norse aka "to drive;" Middle Irish ag "battle."
1640s, "an unprincipled popular orator or leader; one who seeks to obtain political power by pandering to the prejudices, wishes, ignorance, and passions of the people or a part of them," ultimately from Greek dēmagōgos "popular leader," also "leader of the mob," from dēmos "people, common people" (originally "district," from PIE *da-mo- "division," from root *da- "to divide") + agōgos "leader," from agein "to lead" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move").
In a historical sense from 1650s, "a leader of the masses in an ancient city or state, one who sways the people by oratory or persuasion." Often a term of disparagement since the time of its first use (in Athens, 5c. B.C.E.). Form perhaps influenced by French démagogue (mid-14c.).
Indeed, since the term demagogos explicitly denotes someone who leads or shepherds the demos, the eventual use of this word as the primary epithet for a political panderer represents a virtual reversal of its original meaning. The word demagogos in fact implies that the people need someone to lead them and that political power, at least in part, is exercised appropriately through this leadership. [Loren J. Samons II, "What's Wrong With Democracy," University of California Press, 2004]
A Latin word in a similar sense was plebicola "one who courts (literally 'cultivates') the common people," from plebs "the populace, the common people" + colere "to cultivate."