Etymology
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Barbie 
1959, trademark name (reg. U.S.). Supposedly named after the daughter of its creator, U.S. businesswoman Ruth Handler (1916-2002); see Barbara.
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Gang of Four 
1976, translating Chinese sirenbang, the nickname given to the four leaders of the Cultural Revolution who took the fall in Communist China after the death of Mao.
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Scot 

Old English Scottas (plural) "inhabitants of Ireland, Irishmen," from Late Latin Scotti (c. 400), a name of uncertain origin, perhaps from Celtic (but answering to no known tribal name; Irish Scots appears to be a Latin borrowing). The name followed the Irish tribe which invaded Scotland 6c. C.E. after the Romans withdrew from Britain, and after the time of Alfred the Great the Old English word described only the Irish who had settled in the northwest of Britain.

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Kampuchea 
name taken by Cambodia after the communist takeover in 1975, representing a local pronunciation of the name that came into English as Cambodia. Related: Kampuchean.
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New Orleans 

founded 1718 as Nouvelle Orléans, in honor of French regent Philippe, duc d'Orléans (1674–1723). The name was Englished after the place was purchased by the U.S. in 1803.

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Juneau 
city in Alaska, settled 1881 and named for French-Canadian prospector Joe Juneau (1836-1899), who with Dick Harris founded the place shortly after gold was discovered nearby.
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Voltaire 

name taken from 1718 by French author François Marie Arouet after his imprisonment in the Bastille on suspicion of having written some satirical verses; originally de Voltaire. The signification is uncertain.

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Horst Wessel 
name of a Nazi activist and SA bandleader (1907-1930), author in 1929 of the lyrics to what became the German Nazi party anthem, known after as the Horst-Wessel-Lied ("Horst Wessel Song").
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Singh 
common surname and middle name in North India, later (1699) adopted by Sikhs as a title after their initiation ceremony, also a surname adopted by male Sikhs; 1620s in English, from Hindi Singh, from Sanskrit simhah "lion."
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Belgravia 
fashionable residential district of London, noted for the wealthiness and aristocracy of its residents, it was developed in the 1820s and after on land owned by Earl Grosvenor and named (with -ia) for Belgrave, site of a Grosvenor estate in Cheshire.
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