Etymology
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individualism (n.)

"quality of being distinct or individual, individuality," 1815, from individual + -ism. As the name of a social philosophy favoring non-interference of government in lives of individuals (opposed to communism and socialism) first attested 1851 in writings of J.S. Mill.

Is it not the chief disgrace in the world, not to be an unit; not to be reckoned one character; not to yield that peculiar fruit which each man was created to bear, but to be reckoned in the gross, in the hundred, or the thousand, of the party, the section, to which we belong; and our opinion predicted geographically, as the north or the south? [Emerson, "The American Scholar," 1837]
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affectation (n.)

"studied display, artificiality of manner or conduct," 1540s, from French affectation (16c.) or directly from Latin affectationem (nominative affectatio) "a striving after, a claiming," noun of action from past-participle stem of affectare "to strive for" (see affect (v.2)).

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individualist (n.)

1839, "egoist, free-thinker," from individual + -ist, and compare individualism. Related: Individualistic.

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frills (n.)

"mere embellishments," 1893, often in negative constructions; earlier "affectation of dress or manner" (1845), U.S. colloquial, from frill (n.) "ornamental bordering."

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unconventional (adj.)

1832, from un- (1) "not" + conventional (adj.). "A 19 cent. epithet for a certain type of affectation" [Weekley]. Related: Unconventionally.

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collectivism (n.)

1880, in socialist theory, "the principle of centralization of social and economic power in the people collectively" (opposed to individualism), from collective + -ism. Related: Collectivist (1882 as both noun and adjective); collectivization (1890).

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statism (n.)

c. 1600, in reference to church-state matters; 1880 as "the art of government;" by 1912 as the modern political opposite of individualism; from state (n.) + -ism.

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naturalness (n.)

early 15c., "normality," from natural (adj.) + -ness. From 1650s as "state of being natural," also "conformity to nature; absence of artificiality, exaggeration, or affectation."

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purism (n.)

1803, of language, "exclusion of admixture of any kind," often pejorative, "scrupulous affectation of rigid purity," from French purisme (see purist + -ism). As a movement in painting and sculpture that rejected cubism and returned to representation of the physical object, by 1921, with a capital P-.

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poseur (n.)

"one who practices affected attitudes," 1866, from French poseur, from verb poser "affect an attitude or pose," from Old French poser "to put, place, set" (see pose (v.1)). The word is English poser in French garb, and thus could itself be considered an affectation.

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