Etymology
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advertisement (n.)

early 15c., "written statement calling attention to (something), public notice" (of anything, but often of a sale); from Old French avertissement (15c., later respelled pedantically as advertissement, a change rejected in French but accepted in English), from stem of avertir "to turn, direct, make aware" (see advertise). Meaning "public notice (usually paid) in a newspaper or other publication," the main modern sense, emerged 1580s and was fully developed by 18c.; later extended to Web sites.

Advertisements are now so numerous that they are very negligently perused, and it is therefore become necessary to gain attention by magnificence of promises and by eloquence sometimes sublime and sometimes pathetick. Promise, large promise, is the soul of an advertisement. I remember a washball that had a quality truly wonderful—it gave an exquisite edge to the razor! ... The trade of advertising is now so near to perfection that it is not easy to propose any improvement. [Johnson, "The Idler," Jan. 20, 1758]
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advertique (n.)
a collector's word for old advertisements, by 1974, from advertisement + antique.
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advert (n.)
"paid public notice," by 1860, colloquial shortening of advertisement, from the print abbreviation, which is attested by 1855.
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ad (n.)
abbreviation of advertisement, attested by 1841. Long resisted by those in the trade, and according to Mencken (1945) denounced by William C. D'Arcy (president of Associated Advertising Clubs of the World) as "the language of bootblacks, ... beneath the dignity of men of the advertising profession."
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advertise (v.)

early 15c., advertisen, "to take notice of" (a sense now obsolete), from Old French advertiss-, present-participle stem of advertir (earlier avertir) "make aware, call attention, remark; turn, turn to" (12c.), from Latin advertere "to direct one's attention to; give heed," literally "to turn toward," from ad "to, toward" (see ad-) + vertere "to turn" (see versus).

The transitive sense of "give notice to others, inform, warn; make clear or manifest" (mid-15c.) is by influence of advertisement; the specific commercial meaning "call attention to goods for sale, rewards, etc." emerged by late 18c. Compare advert (v.) "turn (someone's) attention to."  Related: Advertised; advertising.

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copywriter (n.)

"writer of copy for advertisements," 1911, from copy (n.) in the sense of "the text of an advertisement" (1905) + writer. Related: Copywriting.

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promo (n.)

"a promotional advertisement," 1958 (in Billboard magazine headlines), shortening of promotion in the sense "advertising, publicity."

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commercial (n.)

"an advertisement broadcast on radio or TV," 1935, from commercial (adj.). Earlier as a noun it was short for commercial traveler (1855).

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play-bill (n.)

also playbill, 1670s, "placard displayed as an advertisement of a play," giving more or less information about it, from play (n.) in the theatrical sense + bill (n.1).

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teaser (n.)
"one who teases" (wool, flax, etc.), late 15c. (late 13c. as a surname), agent noun from tease (v.). From 1934 as "short sample, introductory advertisement."
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