Etymology
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adverse (adj.)
late 14c., "contrary, opposing," from Old French advers, earlier avers (13c., Modern French adverse) "antagonistic, unfriendly, contrary, foreign" (as in gent avers "infidel race"), from Latin adversus "turned against, turned toward, fronting, facing," figuratively "hostile, adverse, unfavorable," past participle of advertere "to turn toward," from ad "to" (see ad-) + vertere "to turn, turn back; be turned; convert, transform, translate; be changed" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend"). For distinction of use, see averse. Related: Adversely.
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adversity (n.)
c. 1200, aduersite "condition of misfortune, hardship, difficulty, distress," from Old French adversite, aversite (Modern French aversité) "adversity, calamity, misfortune; hostility, wickedness, malice" (Modern French adversité), from Latin adversitatem (nominative adversitas) "opposition," from adversus "turned against, hostile" (see adverse).
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averse (adj.)

mid-15c., "turned away in mind or feeling, disliking, unwilling," from Old French avers "hostile, antagonistic" and directly from Latin aversus "turned away, turned back," past participle of avertere "to turn away," from ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + vertere "to turn" (see versus). Originally and usually in English in the mental sense, while averted is used in a physical sense.

Averse applies to feeling, adverse to action: as, I was very averse to his going: an adverse vote: adverse fortune. [Century Dictionary, 1906]
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*wer- (2)

Proto-Indo-European root forming words meaning "to turn, bend."

It forms all or part of: adverse; anniversary; avert; awry; controversy; converge; converse (adj.) "exact opposite;" convert; diverge; divert; evert; extroversion; extrovert; gaiter; introrse; introvert; invert; inward; malversation; obverse; peevish; pervert; prose; raphe; reverberate; revert; rhabdomancy; rhapsody; rhombus; ribald; sinistrorse; stalwart; subvert; tergiversate; transverse; universe; verbena; verge (v.1) "tend, incline;" vermeil; vermicelli; vermicular; vermiform; vermin; versatile; verse (n.) "poetry;" version; verst; versus; vertebra; vertex; vertigo; vervain; vortex; -ward; warp; weird; worm; worry; worth (adj.) "significant, valuable, of value;" worth (v.) "to come to be;" wrangle; wrap; wrath; wreath; wrench; wrest; wrestle; wriggle; wring; wrinkle; wrist; writhe; wrong; wroth; wry.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit vartate "turns round, rolls;" Avestan varet- "to turn;" Hittite hurki- "wheel;" Greek rhatane "stirrer, ladle;" Latin vertere (frequentative versare) "to turn, turn back, be turned; convert, transform, translate; be changed," versus "turned toward or against;" Old Church Slavonic vrŭteti "to turn, roll," Russian vreteno "spindle, distaff;" Lithuanian verčiu, versti "to turn;" German werden, Old English weorðan "to become;" Old English -weard "toward," originally "turned toward," weorthan "to befall," wyrd "fate, destiny," literally "what befalls one;" Welsh gwerthyd "spindle, distaff;" Old Irish frith "against."

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cross (adv.)

c. 1400, "to the side," from on cros, variant of across, and in part from cross (adj.). From c. 1600 as "in an adverse way."

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blackball (v.)
also black-ball, "to exclude from a club by adverse votes," 1770, from black (adj.) + ball (n.1). The image is of the black balls of wood or ivory that were dropped into an urn as adverse votes during secret ballots. Related: Blackballed; blackballing.
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cross-examine (n.)

"examine a witness (by the other side) to 'check' the effects of previous questioning," 1660s, from cross (adv.) in the sense "proceeding from an adverse party by way of reciprocal contest" + examine. Related: Cross-examination (1746).

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doom (v.)

late 14c., domen, "to judge, pass judgment on," from doom (n.). The Old English word was deman, which became deem. Meaning "condemn (to punishment), pronounce adverse judgment upon" is from c. 1600. Related: Doomed; dooming.

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froward (adv.)
12c., froward, fraward "turned against, perverse, disobedient; peevish, petulant; adverse, difficult," as a preposition, "away from," the Northern form of Old English fromweard (see fromward), with Old Norse fra (see fro) in place of English from. Opposite of toward, it renders Latin pervertus in early translations of the Psalms, and also meant "about to depart, departing," and "doomed to die." Related: Frowardly; frowardness.
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despair (n.)

c. 1300, despeir, "hopelessness, total loss of hope," from Anglo-French despeir, Old French despoir, from desperer (see despair (v.)). The native word was wanhope.

Despair naturally destroys courage and stops all effort, but may produce a new kind of courage and fierce activity founded upon the sense that there is nothing worse to be feared. In this despair is akin to desperation, which is an active state and always tends to produce a furious struggle against adverse circumstances, even when the situation is utterly hopeless. [Century Dictionary, 1897]
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