Etymology
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admonish (v.)

mid-14c., amonesten "remind, urge, exhort, warn, give warning," from Old French amonester "urge, encourage, warn" (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *admonestare, from Latin admonere "bring to mind, remind (of a debt);" also "warn, advise, urge," from ad "to," here probably with frequentative force (see ad-) + monere "to admonish, warn, advise," from PIE *moneie- "to make think of, remind," suffixed (causative) form of root *men- (1) "to think."

The -d- was restored on Latin model in English as in French (Modern French admonester). The ending was influenced by words in -ish (such as astonish, abolish). Related: Admonished; admonishing. Latin also had commonere "to remind," promonere "to warn openly," submonere "to advise privately" (source of summon).

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admonitory (adj.)
"containing an admonition," 1590s, from Late Latin admonitorius, from Latin admonitus, past participle of admonere "to advise; to warn" (see admonish). Related: Admonitorily; admonitorial.
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admonition (n.)

late 14c., amonicioun "reminding, instruction," from Old French amonicion "admonition, exhortation," from Latin admonitionem (nominative admonitio) "a suggestion, a reminding; an admonition," noun of action from past-participle stem of admonere "to advise, warn" (see admonish). Meaning "caution or warning about future conduct based on past failures" is early 15c. The -d- was restored in French, then (17c.) in English.

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distinguish (v.)

1560s, "recognize as different or distinct from what is contiguous or similar; perceive, make out," from French distinguiss-, stem of distinguer, or directly from Latin distinguere "to separate between, keep separate, mark off, distinguish," perhaps literally "separate by pricking," from assimilated form of dis- "apart" (see dis-) + -stinguere "to prick" (compare extinguish and Latin instinguere "to incite, impel").

Watkins says "semantic transmission obscure;" the sense might be from "pricking out" as the old way to make punctuation in parchment or some literal image, but de Vaan derives the second element from a different PIE root meaning "to push, thrust":

The meanings of ex- and restinguere 'to extinguish' and distinguere seem quite distinct, but can be understood if the root meant 'to press' or 'push': ex-stinguere 'to put a fire out', re-stinguere 'to push back, suppress', and dis-stinguere 'to push apart [thence] distinguish, mark off ....

The suffix -ish is due to the influence of many verbs in which it is the equivalent of Old French -iss-, ultimately from Latin inchoative suffix -iscere (this is also the case in extinguish, admonish, and astonish).

Sense of "to mark or note in a way to indicate difference" is from 1570s; that of "separate from others by some mark of honor or preferment" is from c. 1600. Intransitive meaning "make a distinction, find or show difference (between)" is from 1610s. Related: Distinguishing. The Middle English form of the verb was distinguen (mid-14c.).

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*men- (1)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to think," with derivatives referring to qualities and states of mind or thought.

It forms all or part of: admonish; Ahura Mazda; ament; amentia; amnesia; amnesty; anamnesis; anamnestic; automatic; automaton; balletomane; comment; compos mentis; dement; demonstrate; Eumenides; idiomatic; maenad; -mancy; mandarin; mania; maniac; manic; mantic; mantis; mantra; memento; mens rea; mental; mention; mentor; mind; Minerva; minnesinger; mnemonic; Mnemosyne; money; monition; monitor; monster; monument; mosaic; Muse; museum; music; muster; premonition; reminiscence; reminiscent; summon.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit manas- "mind, spirit," matih "thought," munih "sage, seer;" Avestan manah- "mind, spirit;" Greek memona "I yearn," mania "madness," mantis "one who divines, prophet, seer;" Latin mens "mind, understanding, reason," memini "I remember," mentio "remembrance;" Lithuanian mintis "thought, idea," Old Church Slavonic mineti "to believe, think," Russian pamjat "memory;" Gothic gamunds, Old English gemynd "memory, remembrance; conscious mind, intellect."

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monitory (adj.)

"giving admonition, conveying a warning," late 15c., from Latin monitorius "admonishing," from monitus, past participle of monere "to admonish, warn, advise," from PIE *moneie- "to make think of, remind," suffixed (causative) form of root *men- (1) "to think."

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counsel (v.)

c. 1300, counseilen, "to give or offer advice, admonish, instruct," from Old French conseiller "to advise, counsel," from Latin consiliari, from consilium "plan, opinion," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + root of calare "to announce, summon" (from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout"). Related: Counseled

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warn (v.)

Old English warnian "to give notice of impending danger," also intransitive, "to take heed," from Proto-Germanic *warōnan (source also of Old Norse varna "to admonish," Old High German warnon "to take heed," German warnen "to warn"), from PIE root *wer- (4) "to cover." Related: Warned; warning.

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monition (n.)

c. 1400, monicioun, "warning, instruction given by way of caution," from Old French monition (13c.) and directly from Latin monitionem (nominative monitio) "warning, admonition, reminding," noun of action from past-participle stem of monere "to admonish, warn, advise," from PIE *moneie- "to make think of, remind," suffixed (causative) form of root *men- (1) "to think." With specific meanings in civil and ecclesiastical law.

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reprove (v.)

c. 1300, repreven, repruve, reproeven, "accuse, charge as a fault," from Old French reprover "accuse, blame" (12c.), from Late Latin reprobare "disapprove, reject, condemn," from Latin re- "opposite of, reversal of previous condition" (see re-) + probare "prove to be worthy" (see probate (n.)).

From mid-14c. as "deliver a rebuke, admonish;" late 14c. as "disapprove, condemn, find fault with." Related: Reproved; reproving; reprovable.

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