Etymology
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Achilles tendon (n.)
from Modern Latin tendo Achillis, first used by German surgeon Lorenz Heister (1683-1758) and so-called in reference to the one vulnerable spot of the Greek hero Achilles, whose mother held him by the heel when she dipped him in the River Styx to render him invulnerable (this story is not in Homer and not found before 1c. C.E.). Earlier Achilles' sinew, from Modern Latin chorda Achillis, coined 1693 by Dutch anatomist Philip Verheyden when dissecting his own amputated leg. Hence figurative use of heel of Achillies for "vulnerable spot" (1810).
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Achilles 
Greek hero of the Trojan War stories, bravest, swiftest, and handsomest of Agamemnon's army before Troy, he was son of Thetis and Peleus. His name is perhaps a compound of akhos "pain, grief" (see awe) + laos "the people, a people" (see lay (adj.)); or else it is from Pre-Greek (non-IE). Related: Achillean.
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tendon (n.)
1540s, from Medieval Latin tendonem (nominative tendo), altered (by influence of Latin tendere "to stretch") from Late Latin tenon, from Greek tenon (genitive tenontos) "tendon, sinew," from PIE *ten-on- "something stretched," from root *ten- "to stretch."
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hock (n.1)
"joint in the hind leg of a horse or other quadruped," corresponding to the ankle-joint in man, mid-15c., earlier hockshin (late 14c.), from Old English hohsinu "sinew of the heel, Achilles' tendon," literally "heel sinew," from Old English hoh "heel" (in compounds, such as hohfot "heel"), from Proto-Germanic *hanhaz (source also of German Hachse "hock," Old English hæla "heel"), from PIE *kenk- (3) "heel, bend of the knee" (see heel (n.1)).
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aponeurosis (n.)
"fascia, fascia-like tendon, white fibrous membrane of the body (often connecting a muscle with a tendon)," 1670s, from Latin, from Greek aponeurosis, from aponeuroein, from apo "change into" (see apo-) + neuron "sinew" (see neuro-).
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Thetis 
name of a sea goddess in Greek mythology, mother of Achilles by Peleus. Since Roman times, sometimes, in poetry, "the sea personified."
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tendinitis (n.)
1900, from Medieval Latin tendinis, genitive of tendo (see tendon) + -itis "inflammation."
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filipendulous (adj.)
"hanging by a thread," 1864, as if from Latin filum "thread" (from PIE root *gwhi- "thread, tendon") + pendulus "hanging down" (see pendulous).
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hamstring (n.)
"tendon at the back of the knee," 1560s, from ham "bend of the knee" (see ham (n.1)) + string (n.).
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myrmidon (n.)

one of a warlike people of ancient Thessaly, legendarily ruled by Achilles and accompanying him to Troy, c. 1400, from Latin Myrmidones (plural), from Greek Myrmidones, Thessalian tribe led by Achilles to the Trojan War, fabled to have been ants changed into men, and often derived from Greek myrmex "ant" (from PIE *morwi- (see Formica (2)), but Watkins does not connect them and Klein's sources suggest a connection to Greek mormos "dread, terror." Transferred sense of "faithful unquestioning follower," often with a suggestion of unscrupulousness, is from c. 1600.

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