Etymology
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abortion (n.)
Origin and meaning of abortion

1540s, "the expulsion of the fetus before it is viable," originally of deliberate as well as unintended miscarriages; from Latin abortionem (nominative abortio) "miscarriage; abortion, procuring of an untimely birth," noun of action from past-participle stem of aboriri "to miscarry, be aborted, fail, disappear, pass away," a compound word used in Latin for deaths, miscarriages, sunsets, etc., which according to OED is from ab, here as "amiss" (see ab-), + stem of oriri "appear, be born, arise" (see origin).

Meaning "product of an untimely birth" is from 1630s; earlier in this sense was abortive (early 14c.). Another earlier noun in English for "miscarriage" was abort (early 15c.). In the Middle English translation of Guy de Chauliac's "Grande Chirurgie" (early 15c.) Latin aborsum is used for "stillbirth, forced abortion." Abortment is attested from c. 1600; aborsement from 1530s, both archaic. Aborticide (1875) is illogical. Compare miscarriage.

In 19c. some effort was made to distinguish abortion "expulsion of the fetus between 6 weeks and 6 months" from miscarriage (the same within 6 weeks of conception) and premature labor (delivery after 6 months but before due time). The deliberate miscarriage was criminal abortion. This broke down late 19c. as abortion came to be used principally for intentional miscarriages, probably via phrases such as procure an abortion.

Criminal abortion is premeditated or intentional abortion procured, at any of pregnancy, by artificial means, and solely for the purpose of preventing the birth of a living child : feticide. At common law the criminality depended on the abortion being caused after quickening. [Century Dictionary, 1899]

Foeticide (n.) appears 1823 as a forensic medical term for deliberate premature fatal expulsion of the fetus; also compare prolicide. Another 19c. medical term for it was embryoctony, with second element from a Latinized form of Greek kteinein "to destroy." Abortion was a taboo word for much of early 20c., disguised in print as criminal operation (U.S.) or illegal operation (U.K.), and replaced by miscarriage in film versions of novels. Abortium "hospital specializing in abortions," is from 1934, in a Soviet Union context.

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abortionist (n.)
"one who produces an abortion," 1848, from abortion + -ist.
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abortive (adj.)
Origin and meaning of abortive
late 14c., "born prematurely or dead," from Latin abortivus "prematurely born; pertaining to miscarriage; causing abortion," from abort-, past participle stem of aboriri "disappear, miscarry, fail" (see abort). From 14c.-18c. stillborn children or domestic animals were said to be abortive. Transferred meaning "not brought to completion or successful issue" is from 1590s. Also see abortion. Related: Abortiveness.
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miscarry (v.)

c. 1300, "go astray;" mid-14c., "come to harm; come to naught, perish;" of persons, "to die," of objects, "to be lost or destroyed," from mis- (1) "wrongly" + caryen "to carry" (see carry (v.)). Meaning "deliver an unviable fetus" is recorded from 1520s (compare abortion); that of "fail to reach the intended result, come to naught" (of plans or designs) is from c. 1600. Related: Miscarried; miscarrying.

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pro-choice (adj.)

"favoring a right to abortion," 1975, from pro- + choice (n.).

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anti-choice (adj.)
also antichoice, by 1978, American English, in reference to opposition to legalized abortion; from anti- + choice (n.). Compare pro-life.
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amblosis (n.)
"abortion, miscarriage," 1706, Modern Latin, from Greek amblosis "miscarriage," noun of action from ambloesthai "to come to nought;" perhaps related to amblys "blunt, dull, weak," but the connection is uncertain. Related: Amblotic.
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abortifacient (n.)
1853, noun ("that which causes miscarriage") and adjective ("producing abortion"), from Latin abortus (see abort) + facientem "making," related to facere "to make, do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). An earlier noun for this was abortive (1640s), also a special use of an adjective.
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pro-life (adj.)

"opposed to abortion," first attested 1976, from pro- + life. Used earlier in a more general sense of "enhancing life." Hostile alternative anti-choice attested 1978 in Ms. magazine (compare pro-choice).

What hypocrisy to call such anti-humanitarian people 'pro-life.' Call them what they are — antichoice. [Ms. magazine, Oct. 8, 1978]
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abort (v.)
Origin and meaning of abort

1570s, "to miscarry in giving birth," from Latin abortus, past participle of aboriri "to miscarry, be aborted, fail, disappear, pass away," a compound word used in Latin for deaths, miscarriages, sunsets, etc., which according to OED is from ab, here as "amiss" (see ab-), + stem of oriri "appear, be born, arise," from PIE *heri- "to rise" (see origin). [Watkins, contra de Vaan, etc., derives the second element from a suffixed form of PIE root *er- (1) "move, set in motion."]

The English word is attested from 1610s as "to deliberately terminate" anything (intransitive), but especially a pregnancy in a human or animal. Intransitive use in aeronautics and space-flight is by 1946. Transitive meaning "to cause (a woman) to miscarry" is recorded by 1916; with the fetus or pregnancy as the object of the action, by 1966. Related: Aborted; aborting. The Latin verb for "produce an abortion" was abigo, literally "to drive away."

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