Etymology
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abrade (v.)
Origin and meaning of abrade

""to rub or wear away; rub or scrape off," 1670s, from Latin abradere "to scrape off, shave away," from ab "off" (see ab-) + radere "to scrape" (see raze (v.)). Abrase, from the stem of the Latin verb, is attested from 1590s. Related: Abraded; abrading.

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Abraham 
masc. proper name, name of the first of the Patriarchs in the Old Testament, from Hebrew Abraham "father of a multitude," from abh "father" + *raham (cognate with Arabic ruham "multitude"); the name he altered from Abram "high father," from second element ram "high, exalted." Related: Abrahamic; Abrahamite.

Abraham-man was an old term for mendicant lunatics, or, more commonly, frauds who wandered England shamming madness so as to collect alms (1560s). According to the old explanation of the name (from at least 1640s), they originally were from Bethlehem Hospital, where in early times there was an Abraham ward or room for such persons, but the ward might have been named for the beggars.
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abrasion (n.)
Origin and meaning of abrasion

1650s, "act of abrading," from Medieval Latin abrasionem (nominative abrasio) "a scraping," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin abradere "to scrape away, shave off," from ab "off" (see ab-) + radere "to scrape" (see raze (v.)). From 1740 as "result of abrasion."

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abrasive (n.)
"an abrasive substance," 1850, from abrasive (adj.). Abradant in this sense is from 1868.
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abrasive (adj.)
"tending to wear or rub off by friction," 1805, from Latin abras-, past participle stem of abradere "to scrape away, shave off" (see abrasion) + -ive. Figurative sense of "tending to provoke anger" is first recorded 1925. Related: Abrasively; abrasiveness.
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abraxas 

Cabalistic word associated with the followers of Basilides the Gnostic, by 1680s, of uncertain origin and with many elaborate explanations. Also used in reference to a type of Gnostic amulet featuring a carved gem depicting a monstrous figure and obscure words or words connected to Hebrew or Egyptian religion (1725).

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abreast (adv.)
mid-15c., a contraction of on brest "side-by-side," from a- (1) + breast (n.); the notion is of "with breasts in line." To keep abreast in figurative sense of "stay up-to-date" is from 1650s.
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abridge (v.)
Origin and meaning of abridge
c. 1300, abreggen, "make shorter, shorten, condense," from Old French abregier, abrigier "abridge, diminish, shorten" (12c., Modern French abréger), from Late Latin abbreviare "make short," from Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + breviare "shorten," from brevis "short, low, little, shallow" (from PIE root *mregh-u- "short").

Abbreviate is the same word directly from Latin. The sound development that turned Latin -vi- to French -dg- is paralleled in assuage (from assuavidare) and deluge (from diluvium). Of writing, "shorten by omission," late 14c. Related: Abridged; abridging.
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abridgement (n.)
early 15c., abreggement, "act of making shorter," also, of writing, "that which has been shortened," from Old French abregement, abrigement "shortening, abbreviation," from abregier "shorten, diminish" (see abridge). Verbal noun abridging is attested from late 14c. (abregging).
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abroad (adv.)
Origin and meaning of abroad
mid-13c., "widely apart," a contraction of on brode, from Old English on brede, "in width," literally "at wide" (see a- (1) + broad (adj.)). From c. 1300 as "at a distance from each other," hence "out of doors, away from home" (late 14c.) also "at a distance generally" (early 15c.), and the main modern sense, "out of one's country, overseas" (mid-15c.).
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