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Cambrian (adj.)
1650s, "from or of Wales or the Welsh," from Cambria, variant of Cumbria, Latinized derivation of Cymry, the name of the Welsh for themselves, from Old Celtic Combroges "compatriots." Geological sense (in reference to Paleozoic rocks first studied in Wales and Cumberland) is from 1836.
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Silurian (adj.)
1708, "pertaining to the Silures," from Latin Silures "ancient British tribe inhabiting southeast Wales." Geological sense is from 1835, coined by Sir Roderick Impey Murchison (1792-1871) because rocks of this period are especially frequent in Wales.
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Britain (n.)
proper name of the island containing England, Scotland, and Wales, c. 1300, Breteyne, from Old French Bretaigne, from Latin Britannia, earlier Brittania, from Brittani "the Britons" (see Briton). The Old English place-name Brytenlond meant "Wales." If there was a Celtic name for the island, it has not been recorded.
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whale (v.2)
"beat, whip severely," 1790, possibly a variant of wale (v.) "to mark with 'wales' or stripes" (early 15c.), from wale (n.). Related: Whaled; whaling.
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Seven Champions (n.)
1590s, the national saints of England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, France, Spain, and Italy, viz. George, Andrew, David, Patrick, Denys, James, and Anthony.
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boomerang (n.)
"missile weapon used by Australian aborigines," 1827, adapted from an extinct Aboriginal languages of New South Wales, Australia. Another variant, perhaps, was wo-mur-rang (1798).
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Great Britain 
c. 1400, Grete Britaigne "the land of the Britons before the English conquest" (as opposed to Brittany), also "England and Wales;" see great (adj.) + Britain.
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pen- 

a Brythonic (Celtic) word for "head;" common in place names in Cornwall and Wales (such as Penzance; see also pendragon and Pennsylvania).

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Radnor 
place in eastern Wales, the name is Old English, literally "at the red bank," from Old English read (dative singular readan; from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy") + ofer "bank, slope."
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