Etymology
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voltaic (adj.)

1813, designating electricity produced by chemical action, formed in recognition of Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), who perfected a chemical process used in electrical batteries, + -ic.

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battery (n.)

1530s, "action of battering," in law, "the unlawful beating of another," from French batterie, from Old French baterie "beating, thrashing, assault" (12c.), from batre "to beat," from Latin battuere (see batter (v.)).

The meaning shifted in French from "bombardment" ("heavy blows" upon city walls or fortresses) to "unit of artillery" (a sense recorded in English from 1550s). The extension to "electrical cell" (1748, in Ben Franklin) is perhaps from the artillery sense via notion of "discharges" of electricity. In Middle English, bateri meant only "forged metal ware." In obsolete baseball jargon battery was the word for "pitcher and catcher" considered as a unit (1867, originally only the pitcher).

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volt (n.)

unit of electromotive force, 1873, back-formation from voltaic.

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photovoltaic (adj.)

"of or pertaining to the generation of an electric current at the junction of two substances exposed to light," 1923, from photo- + voltaic. Related: Photovoltaics (see -ics).

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cordless (adj.)

of electrical devices or appliances, "working without a cord, battery-powered," 1905, from cord + -less.

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commutator (n.)

1839, "apparatus for reversing the currents from a battery without rearranging the conductors," agent noun from Latin commutare (see commute (v.)). From 1880 as "contrivance for varying the strength of an electric current."

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hydro-electric (adj.)

also hydroelectric, 1827, "produced by a galvanic cell battery," which uses liquid, from hydro- "water" + electric. Meaning "generating electricity by force of moving water" is from 1884. Related: Hydroelectricity.

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S.O.L. 

initialism (acronym) from shit out of luck (though sometimes euphemised), 1917, World War I military slang. "Applicable to everything from death to being late for mess" [Russell Lord, "Captain Boyd's Battery, A.E.F.," c. 1920]

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charger (n.)

late 15c., "one who loads," agent noun from charge (v.). The meaning "war-horse, horse ridden in charging" is from 1762. The meaning "appliance for charging" in any sense is from 1711, originally in reference to firearms; from 1901 as "device to give charge to an electric battery."

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die-hard (n.)

also diehard, 1844, in reference to the 57th Regiment of Foot in the British Army, from the verbal phrase die hard "suffer, struggle, or resist in dying," 1784; see die (v.) + hard (adv.). As an adjective, attested from 1871. The  brand of automobile battery, spelled DieHard, was introduced by Sears in 1967.

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