Etymology
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upper (adj.)

c. 1300, originally comparative of up (adj.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch upper, Dutch opper, Low German upper, Norwegian yppare.

Upper hand "advantage" is late 15c., perhaps from wrestling (get the over-hand in the same sense is from early 14c.); lower hand "condition of having lost or failed to win superiority" (1690s) is rare. Upperclassman is recorded from 1871. Upper crust is attested from mid-15c. in reference to the top crust of a loaf of bread, 1836 in reference to society. Upper middle class (adj.) is recorded from 1835. Upper ten thousand (1844) was common mid-19c. for "wealthier and more aristocratic part of a large community;" hence uppertendom.

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upper (n.)

"part of a shoe above the sole," 1789, from upper (adj.). Sense of "stimulant drug" is from 1968, agent noun from up (v.).

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bound (adj.1)

"fastened;" mid-14c. in a figurative sense of "compelled," earlier in the fuller form bounden (c. 1300), past-participle adjective from bind (v.). The meaning "under obligation" is from late 15c.; the literal sense of "made fast by tying (with fetters, chains, etc.)" is by 1550s.

In philology, designating a grammatical element which occurs only in combination with others (opposed to free), from 1926. Smyth has man-bound (1867), of a ship, "detained in port for want of a proper complement of men."

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bound (v.1)

late 14c., "to form the boundary of," also "to set the boundaries of, confine within limits;" late 15c., "to be a boundary of, abut, adjoin," from bound (n.1). Related: Bounded; bounding.

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bound (n.2)

"a leap onward or upward, a springing," 1550s, from bound (v.2).

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bound (adj.2)

c. 1200, boun, "ready to go;" hence "going or intending to go" (c. 1400), from Old Norse buinn past participle of bua "to prepare," also "to dwell, to live," from Proto-Germanic *bowan (source also of Old High German buan "to dwell," Old Danish both "dwelling, stall"), from PIE root *bheue- "to be, exist, grow." The final -d is presumably through association with bound (adj.1).

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bound (n.1)

c. 1300, "boundary marker," from Anglo-Latin bunda, from Old French bonde "limit, boundary, boundary stone" (12c., Modern French borne), a variant of bodne, from Medieval Latin bodina, which is perhaps from Gaulish.

It is attested from mid-14c. as "an external limit, that which limits or circumscribes;" figuratively, of feelings, etc., from late 14c. From late 14c. as "limits of an estate or territory." Now chiefly in the phrase out of bounds, which originally referred to limits imposed on students at schools (by 1751); the other senses generally have gone with boundary.

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bound (v.2)

"to leap, spring upward, jump," 1590s, from French bondir "to rebound, resound, echo," from Old French bondir "to leap, jump, rebound;" originally "make a noise, sound (a horn), beat (a drum)," 13c., ultimately "to echo back," from Vulgar Latin *bombitire "to buzz, hum" (see bomb (n.)), perhaps on model of Old French tentir, from Vulgar Latin *tinnitire.

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earth-bound (adj.)

c. 1600, "firmly fixed in or on the earth," from earth (n.) + bound (adj.). Figurative sense "bound by earthly ties or interests" is from 1869.

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north-bound (adj.)

also northbound, "travelling northward," by 1870, from north + bound (adj.2).

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