Etymology
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upper (n.)
"part of a shoe above the sole," 1789, from upper (adj.). Sense of "stimulant drug" is from 1968, agent noun from up (v.).
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upper (adj.)
c. 1300, originally comparative of up (adj.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch upper, Dutch opper, Low German upper, Norwegian yppare.

Upper hand "advantage" is late 15c., perhaps from wrestling (get the over-hand in the same sense is from early 14c.); lower hand "condition of having lost or failed to win superiority" (1690s) is rare. Upperclassman is recorded from 1871. Upper crust is attested from mid-15c. in reference to the top crust of a loaf of bread, 1836 in reference to society. Upper middle class (adj.) is recorded from 1835. Upper ten thousand (1844) was common mid-19c. for "wealthier and more aristocratic part of a large community;" hence uppertendom.
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Volta 
West African river, from 15c. Portuguese Rio da Volta, literally "river of return" (perhaps because it was where ships turned around and headed for home) or "river of bend," in reference to its course.
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volte-face 
a reversal of opinion, 1819, French (17c.), from Italian volta faccia, literally "turn face," from volta, imperative of voltare "to turn" (from Vulgar Latin *volvita, from Latin volvere "to roll," from PIE root *wel- (3) "to turn, revolve") + faccia (see face).
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archivolt (n.)

ornamental molding on the face of an arch, 1731, from Italian archivolto, from volta, volto "arch, vault" (see vault (n.1)). The archi- here perhaps meant originally "chief."

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voltaic (adj.)
1813, designating electricity produced by chemical action, formed in recognition of Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), who perfected a chemical process used in electrical batteries, + -ic.
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axillary (adj.)
"pertaining to the armpit or shoulder," 1610s, from Latin *axillaris, from axilla "armpit, upper arm, underpart of an upper wing" (see axle).
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brachio- 
before a vowel, brachi-, word-forming element meaning "arm, of the upper arm, pertaining to the upper arm and," from Greek brakhion "arm," perhaps originally "upper arm," literally "shorter," from brakhys "short" (from PIE root *mregh-u- "short"), in contrast to the longer forearm.
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Mandingo 
people of the upper Niger region of West Africa, 1620s.
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