Etymology
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church (v.)
"to bring or lead to church," mid-14c., from church (n.). Related: Churched.
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church (n.)
Origin and meaning of church

Old English cirice, circe "place of assemblage set aside for Christian worship; the body of Christian believers, Christians collectively; ecclesiastical authority or power," from Proto-Germanic *kirika (source also of Old Saxon kirika, Old Norse kirkja, Old Frisian zerke, Middle Dutch kerke, Dutch kerk, Old High German kirihha, German Kirche).

This is probably [see extensive note in OED] borrowed via an unrecorded Gothic word from Greek kyriake (oikia), kyriakon doma "the Lord's (house)," from kyrios "ruler, lord," from PIE root *keue- "to swell" ("swollen," hence "strong, powerful"). 

Greek kyriakon (adj.) "of the Lord" was used of houses of Christian worship since c. 300, especially in the East, though it was less common in this sense than ekklesia or basilike. An example of the direct Greek-to-Germanic transmission of many Christian words, via the Goths; probably it was used by West Germanic people in their pre-Christian period.

The word also was picked up by the Slavic tongues, probably via Germanic (Old Church Slavonic criky, Russian cerkov). Finnish kirkko, Estonian kirrik are from Scandinavian. Romance and Celtic languages use variants of Latin ecclesia (such as French église, 11c.).

Phonetic spelling from c. 1200, established by 16c. For vowel evolution, see bury. After the Reformation, church was used for any particular Christian denomination agreeing on doctrine and forms of worship.

As an adjective, "pertaining to a church," from 1570s. Church-bell was in late Old English. Church-goer is from 1680s. Church-key "key of a church door" is from early 14c.; slang use for "can or bottle opener" is by 1954, probably originally U.S. college student slang. Church-mouse (1731) "a mouse supposed to live in a church" (where there is nothing for it to eat) is proverbial in many languages for poverty.

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church-going (adj.)

"habitually attending church," 1540s, from the verbal phrase; go to church for "attend divine service in a religious building" is from late 12c. Late Old English had church-gang for "attendance at church." Related: Church-goer.

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kirk (n.)
"church,"c. 1200, surviving as a northern England and Scottish dialectal word, from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse kirkja "church" (see church (n.)). Hence kirkland "church land" (mid-15c.).
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unchurched (adj.)
1680s, from un- (1) "not" + churched "committed or belonging to a church" (see church (v.)). A verb, unchurch "to remove or exclude (someone) from membership in a church" is recorded from 1610s.
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Dunkirk 
city on the northeast coast of France, French dunkerque, literally "dune church," from Middle Dutch dune (see dune) + kerke (see church (n.)); in reference to the 7c. church of St. Eloi.
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churchman (n.)

"an ecclesiastic, a clergyman," mid-13c., from church (n.) + man (n.). Later "an adherent of the Church of England."

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Anglican (adj.)

1630s, "high-church, of the Church of England," from Medieval Latin Anglicanus, from Anglicus "of the English people, of England," from Angli "the Angles" (see Angle). The noun meaning "adherent of the Church of England" is by 1797. Related: Anglicanism.

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churchyard (n.)

"ground adjoining a church," especially if used for burial, late Old English, from church (n.) + yard (n.1).

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Llanfair 
common in Welsh place names, literally "St. Mary's Church," from Welsh llan "church" (see land (n.)) + Mair "Mary," with lentition of m- to f-.
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