Etymology
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ultimate (adj.)

1650s, from Late Latin ultimatus, past participle of ultimare "to be final, come to an end," from Latin ultimus (fem. ultima) "last, final, farthest, most distant, extreme," superlative of *ulter "beyond" (from suffixed form of PIE root *al- "beyond"). As a noun from 1680s. Ultimate Frisbee is attested by 1972.

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logical (adj.)
early 15c., "based on reason, according to the principles of logic," from logic + -al (1). Meaning "pertaining to logic" is c. 1500. Attested from 1860 as "following as a reasonable consequence." Related: Logically. Logical positivism, in reference to the ideas of the Vienna Circle of philosophers, is from 1931.
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illogical (adj.)
"without sound reasoning according to rules of logic," 1580s, from assimilated form of in- (1) "not, opposite of" + logical. Related: Illogically.
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methodology (n.)

"branch of logic that shows how abstract logical principles are to be applied to the production of knowledge," 1800, from French méthodologie or directly from Modern Latin methodologia; see method + -ology. Often simply a longer variant of method.

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post hoc 
Latin, "after this." Especially in post hoc, ergo propter hoc, logical fallacy, literally "after this, therefore because of this."
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metalogical (n.)

"beyond the sphere of logic, transcending logic," by 1865; see meta- in the third sense of "transcending, overarching, dealing with the most fundamental matters of" + logical. Related: Metalogic (n.), by 1842; metalogical.

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instance (v.)
"cite as an instance" (in the logical sense), c. 1600, from instance (n.). Middle English had a verb instauncen "to plead with, urge, entreat." Related: Instanced; instancing.
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arnica (n.)
plant genus of the borage family, native to central Europe, 1753, Modern Latin, of unknown origin. Klein suggests Arabic arnabiyah, a name of a type of plant, as the ultimate source.
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dialectical (adj.)

1540s, " of or pertaining to logical disputation, relating to the art of reasoning;" see dialectic + -al (1). From 1750 as "of or pertaining to a dialect." From 1788 as "of the nature of philosophical dialectic" (in reference to Kant, later to Hegel and Marx). Related: Dialectally. Dialectical materialism (by 1927) translates Marx's phrase.

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inconsequent (adj.)
1570s, "not following as a logical conclusion," from Latin inconsequentem (nominative inconsequens) "not logically connected, not resulting from what has preceded," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + consequens, past participle of consequi "to follow" (see consequence). Related: Inconsequently.
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