Old English trog "wooden vessel, tray, hollow vessel, canoe," from Proto-Germanic *trugaz (source also of Old Frisian, Old Saxon, Old Norse trog, Middle Dutch troch, Dutch trog, Old High German troc, German trog), from PIE *dru-ko-, from root *deru- "be firm, solid, steadfast," with specialized senses "wood, tree" and derivatives referring to objects made of wood. Originally pronounced in English with a hard -gh- (as in Scottish loch); pronunciation shifted to "-ff," but spelling remained.
also *dreu-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "be firm, solid, steadfast," with specialized senses "wood," "tree" and derivatives referring to objects made of wood.
It forms all or part of: betroth; Dante; dendrite; dendro-; dendrochronology; dour; Druid; drupe; dryad; dura mater; durable; durance; duration; duress; during; durum; endure; hamadryad; indurate; obdurate; perdurable; philodendron; rhododendron; shelter; tar (n.1) "viscous liquid;" tray; tree; trig (adj.) "smart, trim;" trim; troth; trough; trow; truce; true; trust; truth; tryst.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit dru "tree, wood," daru "wood, log, timber;" Greek drys "oak," drymos "copse, thicket," doru "beam, shaft of a spear;" Old Church Slavonic drievo "tree, wood," Serbian drvo "tree," drva "wood," Russian drevo "tree, wood," Czech drva, Polish drwa "wood;" Lithuanian drūtas "firm," derva "pine, wood;" Welsh drud, Old Irish dron "strong," Welsh derw "true," Old Irish derb "sure," Old Irish daur, Welsh derwen "oak;" Albanian drusk "oak;" Old English treo, treow "tree," triewe "faithful, trustworthy, honest."
before vowels pyel-, medical word-forming element used from mid-19c. in forming medical terms, from Greek pyelos "oblong trough, bathing-tub," a word of uncertain etymology, taken in modern scientific use for "pelvis."
"portable trough for carrying bricks, mortar, etc.," 1570s, alteration of Middle English hott "pannier" (c. 1300), from Old French hotte "basket to carry on the back," apparently from Frankish *hotta or some other Germanic source (compare Middle High German hotze "cradle"). Altered by influence of cognate Middle Dutch hodde "basket."
1814, from French, "a café in which smoking is allowed" (17c.), of unknown origin; some suggest a connection to French estamine, a type of open woolen fabric used for making sieves, etc., from Latin stamineus "made of thread." Or [Watkins] from Walloon stamen "post to which a cow is tied at a feeding trough," from Proto-Germanic *stamniz, from suffixed form of PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm." For the unetymological e-, see e-.
c. 1200, "storage chest" (also applied to the biblical "ark of God"), from Old French huche "chest, trunk, coffer; coffin; kneading trough; shop displaying merchandise," from Medieval Latin hutica "chest," a word of uncertain origin. Sense of "cupboard for food or dishes" first recorded 1670s; that of "box-like pen for an animal" is from c. 1600.
"boat-shaped," applied to several parts in anatomy, 1741, from Modern Latin scaphoides "boat-shaped," from Greek skaphoeidēs, with -oeidēs (see -oid) + skaphē "light boat, skiff;" also "basin, trough, a bowl;" literally "thing dug or cut out" (from PIE *skabh-, from root *(s)kep- "to cut;" see scabies). Related: Scaphoidal (1680s).
1725, American English, "fall of water" (earlier shoot, 1610s), from French chute "fall," from Old French cheoite "a fall," fem. past participle of cheoir "to fall," from Latin cadere"to fall," from PIE root *kad- "to fall." Meaning "inclined tube, trough" is from 1804; that of "narrow passage for cattle, etc." first recorded 1871. In North America, absorbing some senses of similar-sounding shoot (n.1).
name for various native boats in the East Indies, 1810, from Hindi dingi "small boat," perhaps from Sanskrit drona-m "wooden trough," related to dru-s "wood, tree," from PIE root *deru- "be firm, solid, steadfast," with specialized senses "wood, tree" and derivatives referring to objects made of wood. The spelling with -h- is to indicate a hard -g-.