1560s, "white magic," from Late Latin theurgia, from Late Greek theourgia "a divine work, a miracle, magic, sorcery," from theos (genitive theou) "a god" (from PIE root *dhes-, forming words for religious concepts) + -ergos "working" (from PIE root *werg- "to do"). From 1858 as "the working of divine forces in human affairs." Related: Theurgical.
*dhēs-, Proto-Indo-European root forming words for religious concepts. Possibly an extension of PIE root *dhe- "to set, put."
It forms all or part of: apotheosis; atheism; atheous; Dorothy; enthusiasm; fair (n.) "a stated market in a town or city;" fanatic; ferial; feast; fedora; -fest; festal; festival; festive; festoon; Festus; fete; fiesta; henotheism; monotheism; pantheism; pantheon; polytheism; profane; profanity; Thea; -theism; theist; theo-; theocracy; theodicy; Theodore; Theodosia; theogony; theology; theophany; Theophilus; theosophy; theurgy; tiffany; Timothy.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek theos "god;" Latin feriae "holidays," festus "festive," fanum "temple."
type of magical practice, 1560s, via Medieval Latin goetia or directly from Greek goēteia, from goēs, goētos "sorcerer, enchanter; charlatan," which is probably connected to goaō "to groan, weep." In early use often contrasted with theurgia (see theurgy.) As a synonym for "black magic, necromancy, witchcraft," 1570s. As the title of a book containing a list of demons, by 1650s. The primary modern sense "magic derived from the book Goetia or related texts" seems to originate circa 1910 in publications by Arthur Edward Waite.
The ancient Greek goeteia refers to magic in senses which align to the modern meaning of "magic" encompassing supernatural phenomenon, bewitchment and charms in both literal and metaphoric senses, and stage trickery. Plato and Dinarchus both use the term around 4c. B.C.E.
The connection to goaō "to groan, weep" is suggested by 10c. in Suda, a sort of early encyclopedia written in Byzantine Greek, via the notion of contact with spirits of the dead, "whence [the word] is derived from the wailing [go/oi] and lamentations which are made at burials." Beekes is willing to entertain this connection but implies some uncertainty.
Sometimes formerly Englished as goety, goetie. Related: Goetic (1630s); goetical (1650s), in reference to magical practices derived from goetia. A practitioner of goetic ritual was a goetian (1650s).