Etymology
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general (n.)

late 14c., "whole class of things or persons, a broad classification, a general truth," from general (adj.). Meaning "commander of an army" is 1570s, shortening of captain general, from French capitaine général. The English adjective was affixed to civic officer designations by late 14c. to indicate superior rank and extended jurisdiction.

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surgeon (n.)

c. 1300, sorgien, cirurgian "person who heals by manual operation on the patient," from Anglo-French surgien (13c.), from Old French surgien, cirurgien (13c.), from cirurgie "surgery," from Latin chirurgia "surgery," from Greek kheirourgia, from kheirourgos "working or done by hand," from kheir "hand" (from PIE root *ghes- "the hand") + ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do").

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general (adj.)

c. 1200, "of wide application, generic, affecting or involving all" (as opposed to special or specific), from Old French general (12c.) and directly from Latin generalis "relating to all, of a whole class, generic" (contrasted with specialis), from genus (genitive generis) "stock, kind" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget," with derivatives referring to procreation and familial and tribal groups).

What is common is of frequent occurrence. What is general admits of comparatively few exceptions: the general opinion (the opinion of the majority); the general welfare. [J.H.A. Günther, "English Synonyms Explained & Illustrated," Groningen, Netherlands, 1904]

Used in forming titles from late 14c. with the sense "having general authority or jurisdiction, chief." Phrase in general "without exception, in one body; as a rule, generally, not specifically" is from late 14c. General rule, one applying to an art or science as a whole, is from c. 1400. General store attested by 1810, American English, in reference to the range of goods sold; a general hospital (1737) is one not restricted to one class of persons or type of disease.

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major-general (n.)

"military officer next in rank below a lieutenant-general," 1640s; see major (n.) + general (n.).

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attorney-general (n.)
"first ministerial law-officer of a state," 1530s (late 13c. in Anglo-French); see attorney + general (adj.). The word-order is French (subject first, adjective second), hence the eccentric plural, attorneys-general.
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neurosurgeon (n.)

also neuro-surgeon, "one who does surgery on the nervous system," especially the brain and spinal cord, 1918, from neuro- + surgeon. Related: Neurosurgery; neurosurgical.

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sawbones (n.)

"surgeon," 1837 (Dickens), slang, from verbal phrase; see saw (v.) + bone (n.).

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cerebral (adj.)

1801, "pertaining to the brain," from French cérébral (16c.), from Latin cerebrum "the brain" (also "the understanding"), from PIE *keres-, from root *ker- (1) "horn; head."

Meaning "intellectual, clever" is from 1929. Cerebral palsy attested from 1824, originally a general term for cases of paralysis that seemed to be traceable to "a morbid state of the encephalon." Used from c. 1860 in a more specific sense based on the work of English surgeon Dr. William Little.

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tracheotomy (n.)
1726, Modern Latin, coined 1718 by German surgeon Lorenz Heister (1683-1758); see trachea + -tomy.
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Chiron 
wisest of the centaurs, from Latin Chiron, from Greek Kheiron, which is of unknown origin; Klein compares Greek kheirourgos "surgeon."
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