1520s, from French suprême (15c.) and directly from Latin supremus "highest," superlative of superus "situated above," from super "above" (from PIE root *uper "over"). Supreme Being "God" first attested 1690s; Supreme Court is from 1689.
It forms all or part of: hyper-; insuperable; over; over-; sirloin; somersault; soprano; soubrette; sovereign; sum; summit; super-; superable; superb; superior; supernal; supra-; supreme; sur-.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit upari, Avestan upairi "over, above, beyond;" Greek hyper, Latin super "above, over;" Old English ofer "over," German über, Gothic ufaro "over, across;" Gaulish ver-, Old Irish for.
name of a supreme angelic being in Jewish theology, 1786, of uncertain origin.
mid-14c., monarchie, "a kingdom, territory ruled by a monarch;" late 14c., "rule by one person with supreme power;" from Old French monarchie "sovereignty, absolute power" (13c.), from Late Latin monarchia, from Greek monarkhia "absolute rule," literally "ruling of one," from monos "alone" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated") + arkhein "to rule" (see archon). Meaning "form of government in which supreme power is in the hands of a monarch" is from early 15c.