Etymology
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splinter (n.)
early 14c., from Middle Dutch splinter, splenter "a splinter," related to splinte (see splint). The adjective (in splinter party, etc.) is first recorded 1935, from the noun.
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splinter (v.)
1580s (transitive), from splinter (n.). Figurative sense from c. 1600. Intransitive use from 1620s. Middle English had splinder (v.) "to shatter" (of a spear, etc.), mid-15c. Related: Splintered; splintering.
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shiver (n.2)

"small piece, broken bit, splinter, fragment, chip," c. 1200, perhaps from an unrecorded Old English word related to Middle Low German schever, schiver "splinter," Old High German scivero, from Proto-Germanic *skif- "split" (source also of Old High German skivaro "splinter," German Schiefer "splinter, slate"), from PIE root *skei- "to cut, split."

Surviving, if at all, in phrases such as break to shivers "break into bits" (mid-15c.). Also, shiver is said to be still dialectal for "a splinter" in Norfolk and Lincolnshire.

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spile (n.)
tap or spout for drawing maple sugar, 1844, from Northern English dialect spile "splinter" (1510s), from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German spile "splinter, skewer, bar, spindle," German Speiler "skewer;" perhaps related to spike (n.1).
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sliver (n.)
"splinter of wood," late 14c., from obsolete verb sliven "to split, cleave," from Old English toslifan "to split, cleave" (see sleave).
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eclat (n.)
1670s, "showy brilliance," from French éclat "splinter, fragment" (12c.), also "flash of brilliance," from eclater "burst out; shine brilliantly; splinter, fly to fragments," from Old French esclater "smash, shatter into pieces," which is of uncertain origin, perhaps from a Germanic word related to slit (v.) and to Old High German skleizen "tear to pieces; to split, cleave." Extended sense of "conspicuous success" is first recorded in English in 1741.
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slice (n.)
c. 1300, "a fragment," from Old French escliz "splinter, fragment" (Modern French éclisse), a back-formation from esclicier "to splinter, shatter, smash," from Frankish *slitan "to split" or some other Germanic source (compare Old High German slihhan; see slit (v.)). Meaning "piece cut from something" emerged early 15c. Meaning "a slicing stroke" (in golf, tennis) is recorded from 1886. Slice of life (1895) translates French tranche de la vie, a term from French Naturalist literature.
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slat (n.)
late 14c., earlier sclat (c. 1300), "a roofing slate, a thin, flat stone," from Old French esclat "split piece, chip, splinter" (Modern French éclat), back-formation from esclater "to break, splinter, burst," probably from Frankish *slaitan "to tear, slit" or some other Germanic source (compare Old High German slizan, Old English slitan; see slit (v.)). Meaning "long, thin, narrow piece of wood or metal" attested from 1764.
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slag (n.)
"refuse from smelting," 1550s, from Middle Low German slagge (German Schlacke) "splinter flying off when metal is struck," related to Old High German slahan "to strike, slay" (see slay (v.)).
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breakaway 
also break-away, 1906 (n.), in reference to sports; 1930s (adj.) in reference to splinter groups; from the verbal phrase (attested from 1530s in the sense "disengage oneself abruptly, escape"); see break (v.) + away (adv.).
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