Etymology
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spew (v.)
Old English spiwan "spew, spit," from Proto-Germanic *spiew- (source also of Old Saxon spiwan, Old Norse spyja, Old Frisian spiwa, Middle Dutch spijen, Dutch spuwen, Old High German spiwan, German speien, Gothic spiewan "to spit"), from PIE *sp(y)eu- "to spew, spit," probably ultimately of imitative origin (source also of Latin spuere; Greek ptuein, Doric psyttein; Old Church Slavonic pljuja, Russian plevati; Lithuanian spiauti). Also in Old English as a weak verb, speowan. Related: Spewed; spewing.
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spew (n.)
"vomited matter," c. 1600, from spew (v.).
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sputum (n.)
1690s, from Latin sputum, noun use of neuter past participle of spuere "to spit" (see spew (v.)).
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spout (v.)
"to issue forcible, as a liquid," early 14c., related to Middle Dutch spoiten "to spout" (Dutch spuiten "to flow, spout"), North Frisian spütji "spout, squirt," Swedish sputa "to spout," from Proto-Germanic *sput-, from PIE *sp(y)eu- "to spew, spit" (see spew (v.)). Meaning "to talk, declaim" is recorded from 1610s. Related: Spouted; spouting.
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cuspidor (n.)

"spittoon," 1779, a colonial word, from Portuguese cuspidor "spittoon," from cuspir "to spit," from Latin conspuere "spit on," from assimilated form of com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + spuere "to spit" (see spew (v.)).

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puke (v.)

"to vomit, eject the contents of the stomach," 1600, probably of imitative origin (compare German spucken "to spit," Latin spuere; also see spew (v.)). First attested in the "Seven Ages of Man" speech in Shakespeare's "As You Like It." Related: Puked; puking.

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spittle (n.)
"saliva, spit," late 15c., probably an alteration (by influence of spit (n.1)) of Old English spætl, spatl, from Proto-Germanic *spait- (source also of Old English spætan "to spit"), from PIE root *sp(y)eu- "to spew, spit" (see spew (v.)).
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spit (v.1)
"expel saliva," Old English spittan (Anglian), spætan (West Saxon), transitive and intransitive, past tense *spytte, from Proto-Germanic *spitjan, from PIE *sp(y)eu-, of imitative origin (see spew (v.)). Not the usual Old English word for this; spætlan (see spittle) and spiwan are more common; all are from the same root. To spit as a gesture of contempt (especially at someone) is in Old English. Related: Spat; spitting.
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vomit (n.)

late 14c., "act of expelling contents of the stomach through the mouth," from Anglo-French vomit, Old French vomite, from Latin vomitus, from vomitare "to vomit often," frequentative of vomere "to puke, spew forth, discharge," from PIE root *weme- "to spit, vomit" (source also of Greek emein "to vomit," emetikos "provoking sickness;" Sanskrit vamati "he vomits;" Avestan vam- "to spit;" Lithuanian vemti "to vomit," Old Norse væma "seasickness"). In reference to the matter so ejected, it is attested from late 14c.

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