Etymology
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sovereignty (n.)
mid-14c., "pre-eminence," from Anglo-French sovereynete, Old French souverainete, from soverain (see sovereign (adj.)). Meaning "authority, rule, supremacy of power or rank" is recorded from late 14c.; sense of "existence as an independent state" is from 1715.
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chiefdom (n.)

1570s, "sovereignty," from chief (n.) + -dom.

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condominium (n.)

1714, "joint rule or sovereignty, ownership exclusive of all except the co-owners," from Modern Latin condominium "joint sovereignty," apparently coined in German c. 1700 from Latin com "with, together" (see com-) + dominium "right of ownership, property, dominion," from dominus "lord, master, owner," from domus "house" (from PIE root *dem- "house, household").

A word in politics and international law until sense of "privately owned apartment" arose in American English 1962 as a special use of the legal term.

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autarchy (n.)
1660s, "absolute sovereignty," from Latinized form of Greek autarkhia, from autarkhein "to be an absolute ruler," from autos "self" (see auto-) + arkhein "to rule" (see archon).
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presidence (n.)

c. 1500, "authority, sovereignty;" 1590s, "action of presiding," from French présidence (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin praesidentia (see presidency). Rare in English, presidency being the usual word.

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dynasty (n.)

"a race or succession of sovereigns from the same line or family governing a country," mid-15c. (earlier dynastia, late 14c.), from Medieval Latin dynastia, from Greek dynasteia "power, lordship, sovereignty," from dynastes "ruler, chief," from dynasthai "have power," which is of unknown origin.

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abdication (n.)
Origin and meaning of abdication

1550s, "a disowning," from Latin abdicationem (nominative abdicatio) "voluntary renunciation, abdication," noun of action from past-participle stem of abdicare "disown, disavow, reject," from ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + dicare "proclaim" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction). Sense of "resignation of inherent sovereignty" is from 1680s.

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monarchy (n.)

mid-14c., monarchie, "a kingdom, territory ruled by a monarch;" late 14c., "rule by one person with supreme power;" from Old French monarchie "sovereignty, absolute power" (13c.), from Late Latin monarchia, from Greek monarkhia "absolute rule," literally "ruling of one," from monos "alone" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated") + arkhein "to rule" (see archon). Meaning "form of government in which supreme power is in the hands of a monarch" is from early 15c.

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principality (n.)

c. 1300, principalite, "position of a prince," from Old French principalite "principal matter; power, sovereignty" (12c., Modern French principauté) and directly from Late Latin principalitatem (nominative principalitas), from principalis "first in importance; original, primitive" (see principal (adj.)).

Mid-14c. as "government by a prince." Meaning "region or state ruled by a prince or monarch" is attested from late 14c. Also in Middle English "state of being superior" (late 14c.).

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hegemony (n.)

1560s, "preponderance, dominance, leadership," originally of predominance of one city state or another in Greek history; from Greek hēgemonia "leadership, a leading the way, a going first;" also "the authority or sovereignty of one city-state over a number of others," as Athens in Attica, Thebes in Boeotia; from hēgemon "leader, an authority, commander, sovereign," from hēgeisthai "to lead," perhaps originally "to track down," from PIE *sag-eyo-, from root *sag- "to seek out, track down, trace" (see seek). In reference to modern situations from 1850, at first of Prussia in relation to other German states.

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