Etymology
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chart (v.)

1837, "to enter onto a map or chart," from chart (n.). In the commercial recording sense, in reference to appearing on the chart of top-selling or most played records published in Billboard magazine, by 1961. The chart itself was printed from c. 1942. Related: Charted; charting.

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chart (n.)

1570s, "map for the use of navigators," from French charte "card, map," from Late Latin charta "paper, card, map" (see card (n.1)).

Charte is the original form of the French word in all senses, but after 14c. (perhaps by influence of Italian cognate carta), carte began to supplant it. English used both carte and card 15c.-17c. for "chart, map," and in 17c. chart could mean "playing card," but the words have gone their separate ways and chart has predominated since in the "map" sense. Meaning "sheet on which information is presented in a methodical or tabulated form" is from 1840; specifically in the music score sense from 1957.

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uncharted (adj.)
1804, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of chart (v.).
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graph (n.)
1878, shortening of graphic formula (see graphic). The verb meaning "to chart on a graph" is from 1889. Related: Graphed; graphing.
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charter (n.)

"formal written instrument bestowing privileges and rights, serving as legal evidence of them," c. 1200, from Old French chartre (12c.) "charter, letter, document, covenant," from Latin chartula/cartula, literally "little paper," diminutive of charta/carta "paper, document" (see chart (n.)). Meaning "aircraft hired for a particular purpose" is from 1922.

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overlay (n.)

in the printing sense, "bit of paper cut and pasted on an impression surface," by 1818, from overlay (v.). Meaning "transparent sheet over a map, chart, etc." is from 1938. In earliest noun use it meant "a necktie" (1725).

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flow (n.)

mid-15c., "action of flowing," from flow (v.). Meaning "amount that flows" is from 1807. Sense of "any strong, progressive movement comparable to the flow of a river" is from 1640s. Flow chart attested from 1920 (flow-sheet in same sense from 1912). To go with the flow is by 1977, apparently originally in skiing jargon.

Go with the flow, enjoy the forces, let ankles, knees, hips and waist move subtly to soak up potential disturbances of acceleration and deceleration. [Ski magazine, November 1980]
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pedigree (n.)

early 15c., pedigrue, "genealogical table or chart," from Anglo-French pe de gru, a variant of Old French pied de gru "foot of a crane," from Latin pedem accusative of pes "foot" (from PIE root *ped- "foot") + gruem (nominative grus) "crane," cognate with Greek geranos, Old English cran; see crane (n.)).

On old manuscripts, "descent" was indicated by a forked sign resembling the branching lines of a genealogical chart; the sign also happened to look like a bird's footprint. On this theory the form was influenced in Middle English by association with degree. This explanation dates back to Skeat and Sweet in the late 1800s. The word obviously is of French origin, and pied de gru is the only Old French term answering to the earliest English forms, but this sense is not attested in Old French (Modern French pédigree is from English). Perhaps it was a fanciful extension developed in Anglo-French. Other explanations are considered untenable.

The crane was at the time in question very common in England and France, and it figures in many similes, proverbs, and allusions. The term appears to be extant in the surname Pettigrew, Pettygrew .... [Century Dictionary] 

Meaning "ancestral line" is mid-15c.; of animals, c. 1600. Related: Pedigreed.

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twenty (adj., n.)

"1 more than nineteen, twice ten; the number which is one more than nineteen; a symbol representing this number;" Old English twentig "group of twenty," from twegen "two" (from PIE root *dwo- "two") + -tig "group of ten" (see -ty (1)). Cognate with Old Saxon twentig , Old Frisian twintich, Dutch twintig, Old High German zweinzug, German zwanzig. Gothic twai tigjus is even more transparent: literally "two tens."

The card game twenty-one (1790) is from French vingt-et-un (1781). Twenty-twenty hindsight is first recorded 1962, a figurative use of the Snellen fraction for normal visual acuity, expressed in feet. The guessing game of twenty questions is recorded from 1786 (a late 19c. parlor variation on it was called clumps).

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diploma (n.)

1640s, "state paper, official document," from Latin diploma (plural diplomata) "a state letter of recommendation," given to persons travelling to the provinces, "a document drawn up by a magistrate," from Greek diploma "licence, chart," originally "paper folded double," from diploun "to double, fold over," from diploos "double" (see diplo-) + -oma, suffix forming neuter nouns and nouns that indicate result of verbal action (see -oma).

The main modern use is a specialized one, "a writing under seal from competent authority conferring some honor or privilege," especially that given by a college conferring a degree or authorizing the practice of a profession (1680s in English).

The plural is always -mas in the ordinary sense (certificate of degree &c.), though -mata lingers in unusual senses (state paper &c.) as an alternative. [Fowler]

Compare diplomacy, diplomatic.

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