Etymology
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lined (adj.)
"having a lining or backing" (of some other material), mid-15c., from past participle of line (v.1); meaning "marked with lines" is from 1776, from past participle of line (v.2).
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six (adj., n.)

"1 more than five, twice three; the number which is one more than five; a symbol representing this number;" Old English siex, six, sex, from Proto-Germanic *seks (source also of Old Saxon and Danish seks, Old Norse, Swedish, and Old Frisian sex, Middle Dutch sesse, Dutch zes, Old High German sehs, German sechs, Gothic saihs), from PIE *s(w)eks (source also of Sanskrit sas, Avestan kshvash, Persian shash, Greek hex, Latin sex, Old Church Slavonic sesti, Polish sześć, Russian shesti, Lithuanian šeši, Old Irish se, Welsh chwech).

Six-shooter, usually a revolver with six chambers, is first attested 1844; six-pack of beverage containers is from 1952, of abdominal muscles by 1995. Six of one and half-a-dozen of the other "little difference" is recorded from 1833. Six-figure in reference to hundreds of thousands (of dollars, etc.) is from 1840. Six feet under "dead" is from 1942.

Phrase at sixes and sevens originally was "hazarding all one's chances," first in Chaucer, perhaps from dicing (the original form was on six and seven); it could be a corruption of at cinque and sice "exposed to great risk" (1530s), literally "at five and six," using the French names (which were common in Middle English) for the highest numbers on the dice. Meaning "at odds, in disagreement or confusion" is from 1785, perhaps via a notion of "left unsettled."

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deep six (n.)

"place where something is discarded," by 1921 (in phrase give (something) the deep six), originally in motorboating slang, perhaps from earlier underworld noun sense of "the grave" (1929), which is perhaps a reference to the usual grave depth of six feet. But the phrase (in common with mark twain) also figured in sailing jargon, of sounding, for a measure of six fathoms:

As the water deepened under her keel the boyish voice rang out from the chains: "By the mark five—and a quarter less six—by the deep six—and a half seven—by the deep eight—and a quarter eight." ["Learning the Road to Sea," in Outing magazine, February 1918]

In general use by 1940s. As a verb from 1953.

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eighty-six (v.)
slang for "eliminate," 1936, originated at lunch counters, a cook's word for "none" when asked for something not available, probably rhyming slang for nix.
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sestina (n.)

type of poem in fixed form, 1797, from Italian, "poem of six-lined stanzas," from sesto "sixth," from Latin sextus (see six). Invented by 12c. Provençal troubadour Arnaut Daniel. The line-endings of the first stanza are repeated in different order in the rest, and in an envoi.

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ice-chest (n.)
1839, originally a wooden chest lined with zinc, from ice (n.) + chest (n.).
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hexameter (adj.)
1540s, from Latin hexameter, from Greek hexametros "of six measures, composed of six feet; hexameter," from hex "six" (see six) + metron "poetic meter" (from PIE root *me- (2) "to measure"). As a noun, "a verse consisting of six measures," from 1570s. Chaucer has the word as exametron. Related: Hexametric.
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sextuple (adj.)

"sixfold, six times as much," 1620s, ultimately from Latin sextus "sixth" (from sex "six;" see six) + -plus "more; -fold" (see -plus). Compare French sextuple, Spanish sextuplo, Italian sestuplo. As a verb, "multiply by six," from 1630s.

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Sextus 

masc. proper name, from Latin, properly "the sixth," originally denoting a sixth child, from sextus "sixth," from sex "six" (see six; compare Octavian).

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sextet (n.)

1841, also sextette, "work for six voices," altered (by influence of German Sextett) from sestet (q.v.). As "company or group of six persons or things" by 1873.

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