Etymology
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six (adj., n.)

"1 more than five, twice three; the number which is one more than five; a symbol representing this number;" Old English siex, six, sex, from Proto-Germanic *seks (source also of Old Saxon and Danish seks, Old Norse, Swedish, and Old Frisian sex, Middle Dutch sesse, Dutch zes, Old High German sehs, German sechs, Gothic saihs), from PIE *s(w)eks (source also of Sanskrit sas, Avestan kshvash, Persian shash, Greek hex, Latin sex, Old Church Slavonic sesti, Polish sześć, Russian shesti, Lithuanian šeši, Old Irish se, Welsh chwech).

Six-shooter, usually a revolver with six chambers, is first attested 1844; six-pack of beverage containers is from 1952, of abdominal muscles by 1995. Six of one and half-a-dozen of the other "little difference" is recorded from 1833. Six-figure in reference to hundreds of thousands (of dollars, etc.) is from 1840. Six feet under "dead" is from 1942.

Phrase at sixes and sevens originally was "hazarding all one's chances," first in Chaucer, perhaps from dicing (the original form was on six and seven); it could be a corruption of at cinque and sice "exposed to great risk" (1530s), literally "at five and six," using the French names (which were common in Middle English) for the highest numbers on the dice. Meaning "at odds, in disagreement or confusion" is from 1785, perhaps via a notion of "left unsettled."

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sice (n.)
"a roll of 6 in dice," late 14c., from Old French sis, from Latin sex (see six).
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Sextus 

masc. proper name, from Latin, properly "the sixth," originally denoting a sixth child, from sextus "sixth," from sex "six" (see six; compare Octavian).

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sixfold (adj.)
Old English sixfeald; see six + -fold. Similar formation in Danish sexfold, Dutch zes-voudig; German sechsfältig, Swedish sexfaldig.
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hexane (n.)
paraffin hydrocarbon, 1872, from Greek hex "six" (see six) + chemical suffix -ane. So called for its six carbon atoms.
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hexa- 
before vowels and in certain chemical compound words hex-, word-forming element meaning "six," from Greek hexa-, combining form of hex "six," from PIE root *sweks- (see six).
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sestina (n.)

type of poem in fixed form, 1797, from Italian, "poem of six-lined stanzas," from sesto "sixth," from Latin sextus (see six). Invented by 12c. Provençal troubadour Arnaut Daniel. The line-endings of the first stanza are repeated in different order in the rest, and in an envoi.

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sextuple (adj.)

"sixfold, six times as much," 1620s, ultimately from Latin sextus "sixth" (from sex "six;" see six) + -plus "more; -fold" (see -plus). Compare French sextuple, Spanish sextuplo, Italian sestuplo. As a verb, "multiply by six," from 1630s.

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sext (n.)

early 15c., "third of the lesser canonical hours" in churches and religious houses, from Latin sexta (hora), fem. of sextus, ordinal of sex (see six). The office of the sixth hour, originally and properly said at midday. Also "the interval of a sixth in music," etc.

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sixpence (n.)
late 14c., "sum of six pennies," from six + pence. As a specific British coin, from 1590s. Sixpenny (adj.) had a figurative sense "paltry, cheap, petty, worthless" by 1560s; sixpenny nails (early 15c.) cost so much per hundred.
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