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anchor (v.)
"fix or secure in a particular place," c. 1200, perhaps in Old English, from anchor (n.) or from Medieval Latin ancorare. Figurative use from 1580s; in reference to television or radio programs, 1961. Related: Anchored; anchoring.
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anchor (n.)
"device for securing ships to the ground under the water by means of cables," Old English ancor, borrowed 9c. from Latin ancora "an anchor," from or cognate with Greek ankyra "an anchor, a hook," from PIE root *ang-/*ank- "to bend" (see angle (n.)).

A very early borrowing into English and said to be the only Latin nautical term used in the Germanic languages (German Anker, Swedish ankar, etc.). The unetymological -ch- emerged late 16c., a pedantic imitation of a corrupt spelling of the Latin word. The figurative sense of "that which gives stability or security" is from late 14c. Meaning "host or presenter of a TV or radio program" is from 1965, short for anchorman (q.v.).
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sea (n.)

Old English "sheet of water, sea, lake, pool," from Proto-Germanic *saiwa- (source also of Old Saxon seo, Old Frisian se, Middle Dutch see, Swedish sjö), of unknown origin, outside connections "wholly doubtful" [Buck]. Meaning "large quantity" (of anything) is from c. 1200.

Germanic languages also use the general Indo-European word (represented by English mere (n.1)), but have no firm distinction between "sea" and "lake," either by size, by inland or open, or by salt vs. fresh. This may reflect the Baltic geography where the languages are thought to have originated. The two words are used more or less interchangeably in Germanic, and exist in opposite senses (such as Gothic saiws "lake, marshland," marei "sea;" but Dutch zee "sea," meer "lake"). Compare also Old Norse sær "sea," but Danish , usually "lake" but "sea" in phrases. German See is "sea" (fem.) or "lake" (masc.).

Boutkan writes that the sea words in Germanic likely were originally "lake," and the older word for "sea" is represented by haff. The single Old English word glosses Latin mare, aequor, pontus, pelagus, and marmor.

 Meaning "dark area of the moon's surface" is attested from 1660s (see mare (n.2)). Phrase sea change "transformation," literally "a change wrought by the sea," is attested from 1610, first in Shakespeare ("The Tempest," I.ii). Sea anemone is from 1742; sea legs, humorous colloquial term implying ability to walk on a ship's deck when she is pitching or rolling is from 1712; sea level from 1806; sea urchin from 1590s. At sea in the figurative sense of "perplexed" is attested from 1768, from literal sense of "out of sight of land" (c. 1300).

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sea-dog (n.)
1590s, "harbor seal," from sea + dog (n.). Also "pirate" (1650s). Meaning "old seaman, sailor who has been long afloat" is attested from 1840.
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North Sea 

Middle English North-se, from Old English norþ, norðsæ, usually meaning "the Bristol Channel" (see north + sea). The application to the body of waternow so called, east of England (late 13c.) is from Dutch (Noordzee, Middle Dutch Noortzee); it lies to the north of Holland, where it was contrasted with the inland Zuider Zee, literally "Southern Sea"). To the Danes, it sometimes was Vesterhavet "West Sea." In English, this had been typically called the "German Sea" or "German Ocean," which follows the Roman name for it, Oceanus Germanicus. "German" persisted on some British maps at least into the 1830s. North Sea in Middle English also could mean "the northern portion of the ocean believed to surround the earth" (late 14c.).

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Red Sea (n.)
the Greek thalassa erythra; the reason for the name is unknown; speculation has traced it to: 1. algae in coastal waters; 2. sandstone rock formations on the shores; 3. a tribal name; 4. ancient association of "red" with "south" (as "black" with "north").
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sea-breeze (n.)
one blowing from the sea to the shore, 1690s, from sea + breeze (n.).
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sea-horse (n.)
late 15c., "walrus," from sea + horse (n.); also see walrus. Also in heraldry as a fabulous animal with the foreparts of a horse and the tail of a fish. Main modern sense in zoology is attested from 1580s.
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