Etymology
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shovel (n.)

"instrument consisting of a broad scoop or curved blade with a handle," Middle English shovel, from Old English scofl, sceofol "shovel," from Proto-Germanic *skublo (source also of Old Saxon skufla, Swedish skovel, Middle Low German schufle, Middle Dutch shuffel, Dutch schoffel, Old High German scuvala, German Schaufel). The Old English noun is related to scufan "push away, thrust, push with violence" (see shove (v.)). Shovel-ready, with reference to construction projects, is attested by 2006.

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shovel (v.)

"take up and move with a shovel," mid-15c., shovelen, from shovel (n.). Often especially "move or throw in large quantities hastily and inelegantly." Related: Shoveled; shoveling. Compare German schaufeln, verb from noun. Shoveler (also shovelard) as a kind of duck is from mid-15c.

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scoop (v.)

mid-14c., scōpen, "to bail out, draw out with a scoop," from scoop (n.) and from Middle Low German schüppen "to draw water," Middle Dutch schoppen, from Proto-Germanic *skuppon (source also of Old Saxon skeppian, Dutch scheppen, Old High German scaphan, German schöpfen "to scoop, ladle out"), from PIE root *skeubh- (source also of Old English sceofl "shovel," Old Saxon skufla; see shove (v.)).

The meaning "remove soft or loose material with a concave instrument" is by 1620s. In the journalistic sense by 1884 (see scoop (n.)). Related: Scooped; scooping.

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scoop (n.)

early 14c., scope, "utensil for bailing out," from Middle Dutch schope "bucket for bailing water," from West Germanic *skopo (source also of Middle Low German schope "ladle"), from Proto-Germanic *skop-, from PIE *(s)kep- "to cut, to scrape, to hack" (see scabies). Perhaps to English in part from Old French escope, Old North French escoupe. Compare Dutch schop "a spade," related to German Schüppe "a shovel," also "a spade at cards."

The meaning "hand-shovel with a short handle and a deep, hollow receptacle" is from late 15c. The extended sense of "instrument for gouging out a piece" is by 1706. Meaning "action of scooping" is from 1742; that of "amount in a scoop" is from 1832. The colloquial sense of "a big haul," as if in a scoop-net, is by 1893. The journalistic sense of "the securing and publication of exclusive information in advance of a rival" is by 1874, American English, from earlier commercial slang verbal sense of "appropriate so as to exclude competitors" (c. 1850).

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scupper (n.)

"opening in a ship's side at deck level to let the water flow out," early 15c. (implied in scoper-nail "nail used to attach scupper leathers to a ship"), perhaps from Old French escopir "to spit out," because the water seems to spit out of it, or related to Dutch schop "shovel," or from Middle English scope "scoop" (see scoop (n.)).

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shovelful (n.)

"as much as a shovel can hold or lift at one time," 1530s, from shovel (n.) + -ful.

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peel (n.2)

"wooden shovel with a broad blade and a long handle," used by bakers, etc., late 14c.. pele, from Old French pele (Modern French pelle) "shovel," from Latin pala "spade, shovel, baker's peel, shoulder blade," related to pangere "to insert firmly," probably from PIE *pag-slo-, suffixed form of root *pag- "to fasten."

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scooper (n.)

1660s, "one who scoops;" 1837 as a tool for scooping, especially one used by wood-engravers; agent noun from scoop (v.).

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hole (v.)

"to make a hole," Old English holian "to hollow out, scoop out," from source of hole (n.). Related: Holed; holing. To hole up "seek a temporary shelter or hiding place" is from 1875.

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gourd (n.)

c. 1300, from Anglo-French gourde, Old French coorde, ultimately from Latin cucurbita "gourd," which is of uncertain origin, perhaps from a non-IE language and related to cucumis "cucumber" (see cucumber). Dried and excavated, the shell was used as a scoop or dipper.

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