Etymology
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scoop (v.)

mid-14c., scōpen, "to bail out, draw out with a scoop," from scoop (n.) and from Middle Low German schüppen "to draw water," Middle Dutch schoppen, from Proto-Germanic *skuppon (source also of Old Saxon skeppian, Dutch scheppen, Old High German scaphan, German schöpfen "to scoop, ladle out"), from PIE root *skeubh- (source also of Old English sceofl "shovel," Old Saxon skufla; see shove (v.)).

The meaning "remove soft or loose material with a concave instrument" is by 1620s. In the journalistic sense by 1884 (see scoop (n.)). Related: Scooped; scooping.

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scoop (n.)

early 14c., scope, "utensil for bailing out," from Middle Dutch schope "bucket for bailing water," from West Germanic *skopo (source also of Middle Low German schope "ladle"), from Proto-Germanic *skop-, from PIE *(s)kep- "to cut, to scrape, to hack" (see scabies). Perhaps to English in part from Old French escope, Old North French escoupe. Compare Dutch schop "a spade," related to German Schüppe "a shovel," also "a spade at cards."

The meaning "hand-shovel with a short handle and a deep, hollow receptacle" is from late 15c. The extended sense of "instrument for gouging out a piece" is by 1706. Meaning "action of scooping" is from 1742; that of "amount in a scoop" is from 1832. The colloquial sense of "a big haul," as if in a scoop-net, is by 1893. The journalistic sense of "the securing and publication of exclusive information in advance of a rival" is by 1874, American English, from earlier commercial slang verbal sense of "appropriate so as to exclude competitors" (c. 1850).

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shot (n.)

Middle English shot "a missile, arrow, dart" (senses now archaic or obsolete); "a swift movement, a gushing out," from Old English scot, sceot "a shot, a shooting, an act of shooting; that which is discharged in shooting, what is shot forth; darting, rapid motion."

This is from Proto-Germanic *skutan (source also of Old Norse skutr, Old Frisian skete, Middle Dutch scote, German Schuß "a shot"), from PIE root *skeud- "to shoot, chase, throw." The Old English noun is related to sceotan "to shoot." The meaning "discharge of a bow, missile," also is from related Old English gesceot.

The noun was extended to other projectiles (balls, bullets) by mid-15c. Especially "lead in small pellets, a small ball or pellet," a number of which are combined in one charge, which is attested by 1770 (shortened from earlier small shot, 1727).

The general sense of "an attempt to hit with a projectile" is by 1650s. Extended to sports (hockey, basketball, etc.) by 1772, originally in curling. It is attested by early 15c. as "range or distance of a missile in flight," hence "range" in general (c. 1600), as in earshot

Another original meaning, "payment" (perhaps literally "money thrown down") is preserved in scot-free; also see scot (n.). The notion of "throwing down" might have led to the meaning "a drink," first attested 1670s; the more precise meaning "small drink of straight liquor" is by 1928.

The sense of "hypodermic injection" is attested from 1904; the figurative phrase shot in the arm "stimulant" is by 1922. The broad meaning "a try, an attempt" is by 1756; the sense of "remark meant to wound" is by 1841. The meaning "an expert in shooting with a firearm" is from 1780; the sense of "a rocket flight" is by 1934. The camera-view sense is by 1958.

To call the shots "control events, make decisions" is American English, 1922, perhaps from sport shooting. Shot in the dark "uninformed guess, random attempt" is by 1885. Big shot "important person" is from 1861. 

By the rude bridge that arched the flood,
   Their flag to April’s breeze unfurled,
Here once the embattled farmers stood
   And fired the shot heard round the world.
[Emerson, from "Concord Hymn"]  
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shot (adj.)

early 15c., of fish (implied in shotfish), "having discharged its spawn," past-participle adjective from shoot (v.). The meaning "wounded or killed by a bullet or other projectile" is from 1837.

The modern slang figurative sense of "ruined, used up, worn out" is attested by 1933, American English; the slang phrase shot to hell "in a state of collapse" is attested by 1926 (Hemingway).

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one-shot (adj.)

1907, "achieved in a single attempt" (original reference is to golf), from one + shot (n.). Meaning "happening or of use only once" is from 1937.

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long shot (n.)

also long-shot, in the figurative sense of "something unlikely," 1867, from long (adj.) + shot (n.). The notion is of a shot at a target from a great distance, thus difficult to make. The phrase by a long shot "by a considerable amount," frequently negative, is attested by 1830, American English colloquial. The cinematic sense of the noun phrase is from 1922. As an adjective by 1975.

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big shot (n.)

"important person," 1929, American English, from Prohibition-era gangster slang; earlier in the same sense was great shot (1861). Ultimately a reference to large type of gunshot; see shot (n.).

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mug-shot (n.)

also mugshot, "photograph taken by police of a person after an arrest for identification purposes," 1950; see mug (n.2) "a person's face" + shot (n.) in the photographic sense.

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cannon-shot (n.)

"distance a cannon will throw a ball," 1570s, from cannon (n.) + shot (n.).

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eye-shot (n.)

also eyeshot, "range of vision," 1580s, from eye (n.) + shot (n.) in the sense of "range" (as in bowshot).

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